Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
Using adrenaline in cardiac arrests results in less than one percent more people leaving hospital alive
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 15:49:15 EDT
A clinical trial of the use of adrenaline in cardiac arrests has found that its use results in less than 1 percent more people leaving hospital alive -- but almost doubles the risk of severe brain damage for survivors of cardiac arrest. The research raises important questions about the future use of adrenaline in such cases and will necessitate debate amongst healthcare professionals, patients and the public.
Sahara dust may make you cough, but it's a storm killer
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 15:49:09 EDT
The bad news: Dust from the Sahara Desert in Africa -- totaling a staggering 2 to 9 trillion pounds worldwide -- has been almost a biblical plague on Texas and much of the Southern United States in recent weeks. The good news: the same dust appears to be a severe storm killer.
Wearable device measures cortisol in sweat
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 14:05:19 EDT
By drawing in a bit of sweat, a patch can reveal how much cortisol a person is producing. Cortisol is known as the stress hormone but is involved in many important physiological functions.
Parakeet pecking orders, basketball match-ups, and the tenure-track
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 14:05:14 EDT
Researchers describe a new algorithm called SpringRank that uses wins and losses to quickly find rankings lurking in large networks. When tested on a wide range of synthetic and real-world datasets, ranging from teams in an NCAA college basketball tournament to the social behavior of animals, SpringRank outperformed other ranking algorithms in predicting outcomes and in efficiency.
The need for speed: Why malaria parasites are faster than human immune cells
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 12:52:28 EDT
Elementary cytoskeleton protein is different in parasites and represents a starting point for a possible new therapy against malaria infections.
Eagle-eyed machine learning algorithm outdoes human experts
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 12:51:48 EDT
Researchers have trained computers to quickly and consistently detect and analyze microscopic radiation damage to materials under consideration for nuclear reactors. And the computers bested humans in this arduous task.
A peek into the interplay between sleep and wakefulness
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:46 EDT
The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) in the brain plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep, while the lateral posterior part of the hypothalamus contains neuronal populations implicated in maintenance of arousal. Now, a new study reveals that these arousal-related neurons are heavily innervated by GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area including the VLPO. The work provides important information to understand the mechanisms that control animals' sleep/wakefulness states.
How to weigh stars with gravitational lensing
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:41 EDT
Astronomers have published the predictions of the passages of foreground stars in front of background stars. A team of astronomers, using ultra-precise measurements from the Gaia satellite, have accurately forecast two passages in the next months. Each event will produce shifts in the background star's position due to the deflection of light by gravity, and will allow the measurement of the mass of the foreground star, which is extremely difficult to determine by other means.
Secondhand smoke causing thousands of still births in developing countries
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:37 EDT
Exposure to secondhand smoke is causing thousands of stillbirths in developing countries, according to new research.
Speed up solving complex problems: Be lazy and only work crucial tasks
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:34 EDT
A new improvement to a programming technique called 'lazy grounding' could solve hard-set and complex issues in freight logistics, routing and power grids by drastically reducing computation times.
Wave energy converters are not geared towards the increase in energy over the last century
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:31 EDT
Wave energy converters are designed to generate the maximum energy possible in their location and take a typical year in the location as a reference. Researchers have been exploring how ocean energy in Ireland has evolved during the last century. The results reveal an increase of up to 40%, which directly affects the output of the converters.
Houseplants could one day monitor home health
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:29 EDT
A student from two unrelated disciplines -- plant sciences and architectural design -- explore the future of houseplants as aesthetically pleasing and functional sirens of home health. Their idea is to genetically engineer house plants to serve as subtle alarms that something is amiss in our home and office environments.
A molecular key for delaying the progression of Multiple Sclerosis is found
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:26 EDT
In the lab it was possible to improve the symptoms in the chronic phase of the disease while encouraging the repair of the nervous tissue, and the challenge now is to move the research forward in humans.
Doctors rely on more than just data for medical decision-making
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:23 EDT
A new study finds patients with similar medical profiles receive different treatments based on doctors' 'gut feelings.'
People love to hate do-gooders, especially at work
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:16 EDT
Highly cooperative and generous people can attract hatred and social punishment, especially in competitive environments, new University of Guelph study finds.
World's fastest human-made spinning object could help study quantum mechanics
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:11 EDT
Researchers have created the fastest human-made spinning object in the world, which they believe will help them study material science, quantum mechanics and the properties of vacuum.
Scientists reverse aging-associated skin wrinkles and hair loss in a mouse model
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:08 EDT
Researchers have reversed wrinkled skin and hair loss, hallmarks of aging, in a mouse model. When a mutation leading to mitochondrial dysfunction is induced, the mouse develops wrinkled skin and extensive, visible hair loss in a matter of weeks. When the mitochondrial function is restored by turning off the gene responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction, the mouse returns to smooth skin and thick fur, indistinguishable from a healthy mouse of the same age.
Greening vacant lots reduces feelings of depression in city dwellers
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 11:28:06 EDT
Greening vacant urban land significantly reduces feelings of depression and improves overall mental health for the surrounding residents, researchers show in a new randomized, controlled study. The findings have implications for cities across the United States, where 15 percent of land is deemed ''vacant'' and often blighted or filled with trash and overgrown vegetation.
Most common shoulder operation is no more beneficial than placebo surgery
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:25:18 EDT
Researchers show that one of the most common surgical procedures in the Western world is probably unnecessary. Keyhole surgeries of the shoulder are useless for patients with 'shoulder impingement', the most common diagnosis in patients with shoulder pain.
Effect of genetic factors on nutrition: The genes are not to blame
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:25:15 EDT
Individualized dietary recommendations based on genetic information are currently a popular trend. A team has systematically analyzed scientific articles and reached the following conclusion: There is no clear evidence for the effect of genetic factors on the consumption of total calories, carbohydrates, and fat. According to the current state of knowledge, the expedience of gene-based dietary recommendations has yet to be proven.
New material: Two faces offer limitless possibilities
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:25:12 EDT
Named for the mythical god with two faces, Janus membranes -- double-sided membranes that serve as gatekeepers between two substances -- have emerged as a material with potential industrial uses.
Sea pickles are adapting to the Pacific Northwest
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:25:09 EDT
Tubular colonial jellies known as pyrosomes that arrived in 2014 along North America's Pacific Northwest Coast appear to be adapting to cooler water and may become permanent residents.
Treating dementia with the healing waves of sound
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:25:07 EDT
Ultrasound waves applied to the whole brain improve cognitive dysfunction in mice with conditions simulating vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. It is possible that this type of therapy may also benefit humans.
Scientists identify most pressing issues posed by chemicals in the environment
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:25:03 EDT
Chemicals released into the environment by human activity are resulting in biodiversity loss; increased natural hazards; threats to food, water and energy security; negative impacts on human health and degradation of environmental quality. Now, an international study published in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry involving scientists from the University of York has identified the 22 most important research questions that need to be answered to fill the most pressing knowledge gaps over the next decade.
New study shows certain video games can improve health in children with obesity
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:25:01 EDT
A new study showed for the first time that video games, in combination with fitness coaching and a step tracker, helped overweight children lose weight, lower their blood pressure and cholesterol and increase their physical activity.
Drug now in clinical trials for Parkinson's strengthens heart contractions in animals
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:24:58 EDT
A drug currently in clinical trials for treating symptoms of Parkinson's disease may someday have value for treating heart failure, according to results of early animal studies.
New findings on intercellular communication
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:24:55 EDT
This is a nice example of a rather unexpected discovery: by studying the development of the blood vessels of the brain, researchers have just shed light on a question that was pending for 10 years! They provide a molecular mechanism conferring ligand specificity to Wnt signaling, an ancestral communication pathway present in all vertebrates.
Heart attack risk on the rise for pregnant women and death rate remains high
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:24:32 EDT
Study shows that the risk of having a heart attack while pregnant, giving birth, or during the two months after delivery, continues to increase for American women.
The cause of prostate cancer progression to incurable stage has likely been uncovered
Fri, 20 Jul 2018 09:23:16 EDT
Researchers have discovered novel genes and mechanisms that can explain how a genomic variant in a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11672691 influences prostate cancer aggressiveness. Their findings also suggest ways to improve risk stratification and clinical treatment for advanced prostate cancer.
Long-term effectiveness of therapy for common cause of kidney failure
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 19:56:57 EDT
Among individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, those who were treated with tolvaptan for up to 11 years had a slower rate of kidney function decline compared with historical controls. Annualized kidney function decline rates of tolvaptan-treated patients did not change during follow-up.
Diabetes raises risk of cancer, with women at even greater likelihood, a major new study has found
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 19:56:50 EDT
A global review involving almost 20 million people has shown that having diabetes significantly raises the risk of developing cancer, and for women the risk is even higher. Researchers also found diabetes (type 1 and type 2) conferred an additional risk for women, compared to men, for leukaemia and cancers of the stomach, mouth and kidney, but less risk for liver cancer.
Response to HIV/AIDS epidemic at risk of 'dangerous complacency' as urgent change in approach is needed
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 19:56:47 EDT
HIV rates persist in high risk, marginalized populations and the Commission authors warn that a resurgence of the epidemic is likely as the largest generation of young people age into adolescence and adulthood. * Stalling of HIV funding in recent years endangers HIV control efforts. Historic 'exceptionalism' of HIV treatment and care may no longer be sustainable; services will likely need to be part of wider health care supporting related diseases and conditions.
Fewer injuries in girls' sports when high schools have athletic trainers
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 19:56:41 EDT
Availability of a full-time certified athletic trainer in high school reduces overall and recurrent injury rates in girls who play on the soccer or basketball team, according to a new study.
Protecting autonomous grids from potentially crippling GPS spoofing attacks
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 19:56:39 EDT
Not long ago, getting a virus was about the worst thing computer users could expect in terms of system vulnerability. But in our current age of hyper-connectedness and the emerging Internet of Things, that's no longer the case. With connectivity, a new principle has emerged, one of universal concern to those who work in the area of systems control. That law says, essentially, that the more complex and connected a system is, the more susceptible it is to disruptive cyber-attacks.
Medicaid expansion boosts employment
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:43 EDT
A new study found individuals with disabilities were more likely to be employed in states that expanded Medicaid than their peers in non-expansion states, reducing the need to live in poverty to qualify for Medicaid coverage.
Gene regulator may contribute to protein pileup in exfoliation glaucoma
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:37 EDT
In exfoliation glaucoma, a protein dandruff clogs the outflow pathway for the fluid in our eyes. Scientists have evidence that variants of the same gene that enables us to make connective tissue by crosslinking proteins is associated with this unusual glaucoma.
New solar sailing technology for NASA
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:34 EDT
Researchers is taking solar sailing to the next level with advanced photonic materials. This new class of materials could be used to steer reflected or transmitted photons and enable near-Earth, interplanetary and interstellar space travel.
Genome damage from CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing higher than thought
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:32 EDT
Scientists have discovered that CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing can cause greater genetic damage in cells than was previously thought. This has safety implications for future gene therapies using CRISPR/Cas9 as the unexpected damage could lead to dangerous changes in some cells. The study revealed that standard DNA tests miss finding this genetic damage, and that caution and specific testing will be required for any potential gene therapies.
US opioid prescribing rates by congressional district
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:29 EDT
Congressional districts with the highest opioid prescribing rates are predominantly concentrated in the southeastern U.S., with other hotspots in Appalachia and the rural west, according to the first study to focus on opioid prescribing rates at the congressional district level.
Traveling to the sun: Why won't Parker Solar Probe melt?
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:26 EDT
This summer, NASA's Parker Solar Probe will launch to travel closer to the Sun, deeper into the solar atmosphere, than any mission before it. Cutting-edge technology and engineering will help it beat the heat.
Physics treasure hidden in a wallpaper pattern
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:24 EDT
An international team of scientists has discovered a new, exotic form of insulating material with a metallic surface that could enable more efficient electronics or even quantum computing. The researchers developed a new method for analyzing existing chemical compounds that relies on the mathematical properties like symmetry that govern the repeating patterns seen in everyday wallpaper.
Relaxor ferroelectrics: Relax, just break it
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:21 EDT
Scientists are helping to answer long-held questions about a technologically important class of materials called relaxor ferroelectrics.
New battery could store wind and solar electricity affordably and at room temperature
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:50:19 EDT
A new type of flow battery that involves a liquid metal more than doubled the maximum voltage of conventional flow batteries and could lead to affordable storage of renewable power.
Diabetes during pregnancy may increase baby's heart disease risk
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 16:47:57 EDT
Gestational diabetes may increase the risk of blood vessel dysfunction and heart disease in offspring by altering a smooth muscle protein responsible for blood vessel network formation. Understanding of the protein's function in fetal cells may improve early detection of disease in children.
Rapid cloud clearing phenomenon could provide another piece of climate puzzle
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:57 EDT
Researchers have described rapid and dramatic clearing of low cloud cover off the southwest coast of Africa. This newly observed phenomenon could help climatologists understand how clouds affect Earth's heating and cooling.
Lying in a foreign language is easier
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:54 EDT
It is not easy to tell when someone is lying. This is even more difficult when potential liars speak in a language other than their native tongue. Psychologists investigated why that is so.
Mixed mRNA tails act like a shield that delays its shortening
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:51 EDT
Biologists have identified how mixed tails -- made of different nucleotides -- protect mRNA from degradation for longer. This study could bring new insights to our understanding of gene regulation in healthy and diseased states.
New particles are formed also in the polluted air of major cities
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:48 EDT
Researchers have discovered a mechanism that leads to atmospheric new particle formation in megacities.
Discovery of kidney cancer driver could lead to new treatment strategy
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:44 EDT
Researchers suggest that ZHX2 is a potential new therapeutic target for clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which is the most common type of kidney cancer.
Deep-diving scientists say shallow reefs can't rely on twilight zone systems for recovery
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:33 EDT
A team of highly trained scientific divers explored Pacific and western Atlantic reefs to test a widely held hypothesis that climate-stressed life from shallow reefs can take refuge at mesophotic depths (100-500 feet beneath the ocean's surface). The results are clear: deep and shallow reefs are different systems with their own species, and deep reefs are just as threatened by climate impacts, storms, and pollution.
Yeast species used in food industry can cause disease in humans, study finds
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:30 EDT
A major cause of drug-resistant clinical yeast infections is the same species previously regarded as non-pathogenic and commonly used in the biotechnology and food industries.
Learning from 'little monsters'
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:25 EDT
By studying deep and shallow water zones of streams and their resident invertebrates, researcher reveals mysteries of fresh water life.
Chemists characterize the fatal fungus among us
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:23 EDT
Life-threatening fungal infections affect more than two million people worldwide. Effective antifungal medications are limited. A major challenge is that the fungal cell wall is poorly understood, which has impeded drug development. However, chemist have identified for the first time the cell wall structure of one of the most prevalent and deadly fungi, which could usher in a new era of antifungal drug development to help save lives.
Phages work together to suppress CRISPR bacterial immunity
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:18 EDT
CRISPR are an essential part of bacterial immunity designed to defend against foreign DNA. In bacteria, CRISPR acts just like it does in human cells as a pair of scissors, in their case with the goal of cutting strands of infecting DNA. While researchers have known that CRISPR is found in roughly half of all bacteria in the wild, they did not know much about the molecular battle between CRISPRs and invading viruses or phages.
In a warming climate, Arctic geese are rushing north
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:15 EDT
As Arctic temperatures continue to rise, migratory barnacle geese have responded by speeding up their 3,000-kilometer migration in order to reach their destination more quickly with fewer stops along the way, according to new evidence. Unfortunately, the birds' earlier arrival isn't making as much of a difference as one might expect.
How plant breeding technologies could make fruits and vegetables more exciting to eat
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:13 EDT
Forget vegetables with dull colors and fuzzy skin or fruits that lack of flavor -- the produce aisle of the future could offer plant products that are designed for creative cooks and fussy eaters. In a new article, food researchers describe how new breeding technologies have the potential to enhance the shape, size, color, and health benefits of produce, as well as to inform conventional breeding programs.
Complete fly brain imaged at nanoscale resolution
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:10 EDT
Scientists have taken detailed pictures of the entire brain of an adult female fruit fly using transmission electron microscopy.
Australia-led global push to tackle PCOS -- the principal cause of infertility in women
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:21:01 EDT
Australian led global guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of the primary cause of infertility in women will be published simultaneously in three international journals, supported by a suite of health professional and patient resources to improve health outcomes for women with PCOS.
Enzyme identified as possible novel drug target for sickle cell disease, Thalassemia
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:20:47 EDT
Medical researchers have identified a key signaling protein that regulates hemoglobin production in red blood cells, offering a possible target for a future innovative drug to treat sickle cell disease. Experiments in cultured human cells reveal that blocking the protein reduces the characteristic sickling that distorts the shape of red blood cells and gives the disease its name.
New insights into plants' conquest of land
Thu, 19 Jul 2018 14:20:44 EDT
The ancestors of land plants were string-like (2D), aquatic green algae that looked very different from the three-dimensional (3D), upright stems and leaves of plants we are familiar with today. Now, researchers have revealed exciting insights into how land plants evolved these 3D forms that were crucial for their advancement onto land.