Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
New finding of particle physics may help to explain the absence of antimatter
Tue, 13 Nov 2018 11:04:08 EST
With the help of computer simulations, particle physics researchers may be able to explain why there is more matter than antimatter in the Universe. The simulations offer a new way of examining conditions after the Big Bang, and could provide answers to some fundamental questions in particle physics.
Moths and magnets could save lives
Tue, 13 Nov 2018 11:03:59 EST
Bioengineers have combined a virus that infects moths with magnetic nanoparticles to create a potential new therapy for inherited genetic diseases like muscular dystrophy, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy and some forms of cancer.
Business as usual for Antarctic krill despite ocean acidification
Tue, 13 Nov 2018 08:09:30 EST
A new study has found that Antarctic krill are resilient to the increasing acidification of the ocean as it absorbs more C02 from the atmosphere due to anthropogenic carbon emissions. Krill are one of the most abundant organisms on Earth and a critical part of the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem.
Climate change damaging male fertility
Tue, 13 Nov 2018 08:09:27 EST
Climate change could pose a threat to male fertility -- according to new research. New findings reveal that heatwaves damage sperm in insects - with negative impacts for fertility across generations. The research team say that male infertility during heatwaves could help to explain why climate change is having such an impact on species populations, including climate-related extinctions in recent years.
Treating obesity: One size does not fit all
Tue, 13 Nov 2018 08:09:23 EST
Understanding the very different characteristics of subgroups of obese patients may hold the key to devising more effective treatments and interventions, new research found.
Rare fossil bird deepens mystery of avian extinctions
Tue, 13 Nov 2018 08:09:08 EST
Today's birds descend from a small number of bird species living before the dinosaur extinction. Some of the birds that went extinct, the enantiornithines, were actually more common than and out-competed modern bird ancestors. Analysis of a newly described fossil, the most complete known from the Americas, demonstrates, too, that the enantiornithines were as agile and strong in flight as the ancestors of modern birds. Why, then, did enantiornithines die out and modern birds flourish?
Purple bacteria 'batteries' turn sewage into clean energy
Tue, 13 Nov 2018 08:09:03 EST
Purple phototrophic bacteria -- which can store energy from light -- when supplied with an electric current can recover near to 100 percent of carbon from any type of organic waste, while generating hydrogen gas for use as fuel.
Nitrogen fixation in ambient conditions
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:19:08 EST
Scientists have developed a uranium-based complex that allows nitrogen fixation reactions to take place in ambient conditions. The work lays the foundation to develop new processes for synthesizing nitrogen products like cyanamide.
Planetary boundaries for antibiotic and pesticide resistance identified
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:19:05 EST
Researchers have now published the first estimates of antibiotic and pesticide 'planetary boundaries.' The researchers suggest that if resistance to antibiotics and pesticides goes beyond these boundaries, societies risk large-scale health and agricultural crises. The results indicate one group of bacteria has passed a boundary.
Study opens route to ultra-low-power microchips
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:18:58 EST
Researchers have developed a new way of controlling magnetism in materials, which could lead to new low-power technologies for memory, computing, and sensing devices.
Insufficient sleep in children is associated with poor diet, obesity and more screen time
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:18:14 EST
A new study conducted among more than 177,000 students suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle profile among children and adolescents.
Alpine ice shows three-fold increase in atmospheric iodine
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:18:10 EST
Analysis of iodine trapped in Alpine ice has shown that levels of atmospheric iodine have tripled over the past century, which partially offsets human-driven increases in the air pollutant, ozone.
Small molecules: From beaker to solved 3D structure in minutes
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:18:07 EST
A new method for learning the structures of small molecules, such as hormones, is 'like science fiction.'
New framework pushes the limits of high-performance computing
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:17:23 EST
Researchers found a way to give high-performance computing data systems the flexibility to thrive with a first-of-its-kind framework called BespoKV, perhaps helping to one day achieve the HPC goal of performing at the exascale, or a billion billion calculations per second.
Escape responses of coral reef fish obey simple behavioral rules
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:17:15 EST
The escape response to evade perceived threats is a fundamental behavior seen throughout the animal kingdom, and laboratory studies have identified specialized neural circuits that control this behavior. To understand how these neural circuits operate in complex natural settings, researchers recorded and analyzed escape responses in wild coral reef fish. Their results show how a sequence of well-defined decision rules generates evasion behavior in a wide range of coral reef fish species.
How plants evolved to make ants their servants
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:17:01 EST
Plants have evolved ways to make ants defend them from attacks and spread their seeds, and this new study shows how it happened. In a new study breaking down the genetic history of 1,700 species of ants and 10,000 plant genera, researchers found that the long history of ant and plant co-evolution started with ants foraging on plants and plants responding by evolving ant-friendly traits.
Primates of the Caribbean: Ancient DNA reveals history of mystery monkey
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 19:16:45 EST
Analysis of ancient DNA of a mysterious extinct monkey named Xenothrix -- which displays bizarre body characteristics very different to any living monkey -- has revealed that it was in fact most closely related to South America's titi monkeys (Callicebinae). Having made their way overwater to Jamaica, probably on floating vegetation, their bones reveal they subsequently underwent remarkable evolutionary change.
Sudden cardiac arrest: New findings
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 14:27:05 EST
Scientists have recently completed three critical research studies aimed at better understanding sudden cardiac arrest.
Streamside forests store tons of carbon
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:36:02 EST
Researchers have compiled carbon storage data from 117 publications, reports, and other data sets on streamside forests around the world. Researchers found that the average amount of carbon stored in mature streamside forest rivals the highest estimates for any other forest type around the world, such as tropical or boreal forests.
How pneumococci challenge our immune system
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:44 EST
Pneumococci are the most common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as otitis and sinusitis, as well as of severe infections like pneumonia and meningitis. A new study shows how the bacteria can inhibit immune cell reaction and survive inside cells to give rise to pneumonia.
Half moons and pinch points: Same physics, different energy
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:38 EST
For the first time, physicists present a unified theory explaining two characteristic features of frustrated magnets and why they're often seen together.
Pulling the genome apart: Chromosome segregation during mitosis explained
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:35 EST
Researchers shed light on the protein complexes and processes that enable microtubules to bind to the centromeres of chromosomes and redistribute them to the daughter cells during mitosis. Via experiments including partial protein deletion, chimeric protein production, and measurement of microtubule pulling force, the team showed that interaction of the Ndc80 complex with the CENP-T pathway of kinetochores, not the CENP-C one, is essential for successful cell division.
Dynamic audiovisuals increase spectator attention, but inhibits conscious processing
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:29 EST
According to a new study, scene changes diminish a spectator's blink rate, producing an increase in attention. The results of the study demonstrate that a dynamic and chaotic audiovisual editing causes more activity in the visual processing areas, while continuous and orderly editing produces more cognitive processing activity.
Ultra-thin transparent silver films for solar cells
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:26 EST
A new fabrication process for transparent ultra-thin silver films has been developed. The material may help build highly efficient solar cells and light-emitting diodes. However, traditional chemical methods have not been able to produce ultra-thin and pure silver films.
Misunderstood flying fox could prove bat species demise, warn scientists
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:24 EST
A large fruit-eating bat native to Mauritius is the subject of controversy over the announcement of a major cull to protect the Indian island's fruit crops, despite a lack of evidence as to the extent of damage directly attributed to the endangered species. Monitoring the damage directly caused by the Mauritian flying fox to commercial fruit, researchers found the bat is responsible for only some, and could be managed effectively without the need to cull.
New records in perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells through improved light management
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:21 EST
Using microstructured layers, a team has been able to increase the efficiency of perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells, achieving 25.5 %, which is the highest published value to date. At the same time, computational simulations were utilized to investigate light conversion in various device designs with different nanostructured surfaces. This enabled optimization of light management and detailed energy yield analyses.
Con­ser­va­tion areas help bird­life ad­apt to cli­mate change
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:15 EST
A warming climate is pushing organisms towards the circumpolar areas and mountain peaks. A recently conducted study on changes in bird populations reveals that protected areas slow down the north-bound retreat of species.
Synthetic molecule invades double-stranded DNA
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:16:02 EST
Researchers have developed a synthetic molecule that can recognize and bind to double-stranded DNA or RNA under normal physiological conditions. The molecule could provide a new platform for developing methods for the diagnosis and treatment of genetic conditions.
How mitochondria deploy a powerful punch against life-threatening bacteria
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:54 EST
Researchers discover that mitochondria play an important role in supporting the immune system's response against MRSA infection.
Fish's brain size influenced by habitat
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:46 EST
This is the first known study to connect habitat with varying brain size in a single lake fish population. The finding may provide clues about how fish and other creatures will respond to mounting environmental stressors from pollution to climate change. Researchers say bigger brains contain more neurons, and more connections among them, that lend its owner cognitive and behavioral smarts that may help it adapt to new environments.
Modelling reveals dynamics of climate change, urbanization and heat-mitigating technologies
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:40 EST
Researchers have completed some of the most sophisticated modeling of the effects of climate change and urban centers in the US, and are finding that some of today's proposed solutions will provide only a fraction of relief from the projected heat.
Parents put nature in the shopping basket
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:29 EST
In a world of vast consumer choice, ambiguous product descriptions and self-appointed experts, parents face a minefield when picking out food, toys or other products for their children. A new qualitative study indicates that naturalness is the current benchmark for consumer choice among parents.
Family, school support makes kids more likely to stand up to bullying
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:27 EST
A recent study finds young people with good family relationships are more likely to intervene when they witness bullying or other aggressive behavior at school -- and to step in if they see victims planning to retaliate. The study found that kids who were already excluded, or discriminated against by peers or teachers, were less likely to stand up for victims of bullying.
Cancer stem cells get energy from protein, and it's proving to be their Achilles' heel
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:15 EST
A new study shows that cancer stem cells switch from metabolizing sugar to metabolizing protein. Clinical trial based on this observation may revolutionize care for older adults with acute myeloid leukemia.
New strategy discovered toward possible prevention of cancers tied to mono
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:12 EST
Researchers have discovered a possible path forward in preventing the development of cancers tied to two viruses, including the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis -- more commonly known as mono or the 'kissing disease' -- that infects millions of people around the globe each year.
New insights into the aging brain
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 13:15:07 EST
A group of scientists investigated why the choroid plexus contains so much more klotho than other brain regions.They showed that klotho functions as a gatekeeper that shields the brain from the peripheral immune system.
Developing instruments to detect language problems earlier
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:54 EST
Using the Computerized Comprehension Task, the team measured concepts by asking children to touch images on a touch-sensitive screen that represented words they were learning. The team used a measure of vocabulary that focused on stable concepts, finding that it was superior to prior measures in predicting children's general language ability at age 3. The team also identified individual children at risk for language problems a full two years earlier than prior studies.
'Strongest evidence yet' that being obese causes depression
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:51 EST
New research has found the strongest evidence yet that obesity causes depression, even in the absence of other health problems.
AI capable of outlining in a single chart information from thousands of scientific papers
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:48 EST
Scientists have developed a Computer-Aided Material Design (CAMaD) system capable of extracting information related to fabrication processes and material structures and properties -- factors vital to material design -- and organizing and visualizing the relationship between them. The use of this system enables information from thousands of scientific and technical articles to be summarized in a single chart, rationalizing and expediting material design.
How a spider and a pitcher plant can benefit from collaboration
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:45 EST
Ecologists have shed light on the relationship between the slender pitcher plant and its 'tenant', the crab spider Thomisus nepenthiphilus, providing insights to the little known foraging behaviors of the spider.
New light cast on fishing throughout history
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:42 EST
A new study has revealed new insights into ancient fishing throughout history, including what type of fish people were regularly eating as part of their diet.
Children with autism thrive in mainstream pre-schools
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:36 EST
In a world first, breakthrough research has shown that toddlers with autism are just as capable of learning important life skills through early-intervention delivered in mainstream pre-schools as in specialized settings.
Stripping the linchpins from the life-making machine reaffirms its seminal evolution
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:34 EST
This experiment had a good chance of crashing. Instead, it delivered whopping evidence to corroborate the earliest evolution of the translational system, the mechanisms which make life out of our genes. The study swapped out all its magnesium, tabula rasa, and showed that the system, centering on the ribosome, would have thrived basically as it is today 4 billion years ago at the earliest foundations of life on Earth.
The whole tooth: New method to find biological sex from a single tooth
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 09:59:31 EST
Researchers have come up with a new way to estimate the biological sex of human skeletal remains based on protein traces from teeth.
Bacterial pneumonia far more dangerous to the heart than viral pneumonia
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:36 EST
Heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia, according to new research.
Weight during adolescence may affect pancreatic cancer risk in adulthood
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:33 EST
New research has linked adolescent obesity with up to a four-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer later in life. The study's results also suggest that overweight and even higher weight within the 'normal' weight range in men may increase pancreatic cancer risk in a graded manner.
Kawasaki disease: One disease, multiple triggers
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:30 EST
Researchers have evidence that Kawasaki Disease (KD) does not have a single cause. By studying weather patterns and geographical distributions of patients in San Diego, the research team determined that this inflammatory disease likely has multiple environmental triggers influenced by a combination of temperature, precipitation and wind patterns.
Defective DNA damage repair leads to chaos in the genome
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:26 EST
Scientists have now found a cause for the frequent catastrophic events in the genetic material of cancer cells that have only been known for a few years: If an important DNA repair system of the cells has failed, this promotes fragmentation and defective assembly of the genetic material. Cancer cells with such a repair defect can now possibly be treated by a specific group of drugs.
How your muscles form
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:23 EST
An international team of researchers discovers two proteins essential to the development of skeletal muscle.
Urban planning policy contributes to political polarization
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:20 EST
Urban planning decisions from decades past are likely a contributing factor to the rise of right-wing populism, a new study has found.
It's not trails that disturb forest birds, but the people on them
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:17 EST
The physical presence of trails has less impact on forest birds than how frequently the trails are used by people, finds the first study to disentangle the effect of forest trails from the presence of humans. This is also the case when trails have been used for decades, suggesting that forest birds do not get used to human activity. To minimize disturbance, people should avoid roaming from designated pathways.
Exosomes 'swarm' to protect against bacteria inhaled through the nose
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:14 EST
A research team describes a newly discovered mechanism. The findings shed new light on our immune systems -- and also pave the way for drug delivery techniques to be developed that harness this natural transportation process from one group of cells to another.
Decrease in specific gene 'silencing' molecules linked with pediatric brain tumors
Mon, 12 Nov 2018 08:24:07 EST
Experimenting with lab-grown brain cancer cells, researchers have added to evidence that a shortage of specific tiny molecules that silence certain genes is linked to the development and growth of pediatric brain tumors known as low-grade gliomas.
Environmentally-inspired 'niche' features impact species evolution
Sat, 10 Nov 2018 08:21:37 EST
Researchers have shown that the environment-driven evolution of a unique ovipositor in the female fruit fly Drosophila suzukii may have caused coevolution of the male genitalia; new features were found to cause mechanical incompatibility during reproduction with similar species, impeding crossbreeding and isolating the species. The dual role of the female genitalia was found to trigger coevolution and speciation, a generic pathway which may apply to many other organisms.
Farmer adjustments can offset climate change impacts in corn production
Fri, 09 Nov 2018 18:57:28 EST
New research looks closely at the future of maize crop yields with the effects of climate change.
Salmonella found to be resistant to different classes of antibiotics
Fri, 09 Nov 2018 18:57:26 EST
Common bacteria that cause foodborne diseases are resistant to antibiotics used to treat infections, according to research that identified 39 genes responsible for this resistance.
Plastic microfibers found for first time in wild animals' stool, from S. A. fur seals
Fri, 09 Nov 2018 18:57:23 EST
For the first time, plastic microfibers have been discovered in wild animals' stool, from South American fur seals. The findings were made by scientists who suggest examining scat from pinnipeds can be an efficient way to monitor environmental levels of microfibers and microplastics in the environment.
The new face of South American people
Fri, 09 Nov 2018 15:55:24 EST
Study by 72 researchers from eight countries concludes that the Lagoa Santa people are descendants of Clovis culture migrants from North America. Distinctly African features attributed to Luzia were wrong.
Alzheimer's and cardiovascular disease share common genetics in some patients
Fri, 09 Nov 2018 15:55:21 EST
Genetics may predispose some people to both Alzheimer's disease and high levels of blood lipids such as cholesterol, a common feature of cardiovascular disease, according to a new study.
Grief linked to sleep disturbances that can be bad for the heart
Fri, 09 Nov 2018 15:55:16 EST
People who have recently lost a spouse are more likely to have sleep disturbances that exacerbate levels of inflammation in the body, according to new research. These elevated levels of inflammation may increase risk for cardiovascular illness and death.