Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily
Insomnia symptoms, overall health improve with online insomnia program
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:17:33 EDT
Treating insomnia with digital programs can improve insomnia symptoms, daytime functioning and overall health, a new study has found. A major limitation of insomnia treatments is the lack of providers to deliver CBT, but this study used an online platform that made it easily accessible to users. It also automated and tailored the treatment based on the user's sleep patterns.
Food scientists profile microbes at a fermented vegetable facility
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:17:31 EDT
Food scientists have mapped and characterized microbial populations in a vegetable fermentation facility and report that its microbiome was distinct between production and fermentation areas and that the raw vegetables themselves -- cabbages destined for sauerkraut -- were the main source of fermentation-related microbes in production areas rather than handling or other environmental sources.
Liquid metal discovery to make toxic water safe and drinkable
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:05:22 EDT
Researchers have discovered a revolutionary and cheap way to make filters that can turn water contaminated with heavy metals into safe drinking water in a matter of minutes.
Researchers seek vaccine for 'traveler's diarrhea'
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:33 EDT
Medical researchers have discovered how ETEC works to cause disease. They are using this information in an effort to develop a preventive vaccine for travelers.
Enzymes 'partner up' to accelerate cancer, aging diseases
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:31 EDT
Researchers have identified cellular processes that appear to supercharge both the growth and shrinkage of the chemical 'caps' on chromosomes associated with aging, called telomeres.
Once majestic Atlantic Forest 'empty' after 500 years of over-exploitation
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:28 EDT
New research finds that 500 years of over-exploitation has halved mammal populations in South America's once majestic Atlantic Forest. A new analysis of mammal populations reveals the devastating effects of human disturbance since the area was first colonized in the 1500s. They found that apex predators and large carnivores, such as jaguars and pumas, as well as large-bodied herbivores, such as tapirs, were among the groups whose numbers had suffered the most.
Lung cancer drug could be repurposed to target 'zombie' proteins linked to leukemia
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:25 EDT
A new study highlights how a clinically approved lung cancer drug could potentially be 'repurposed' to design new treatments for future cancer therapies. The research focuses on a protein called TRIB2, which is linked to promoting survival and drug resistance in solid tumors and blood cancers and is therefore of particular interest as a therapeutic target.
Sensitive babies become altruistic toddlers
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:23 EDT
Our responsiveness to seeing others in distress accounts for variability in helping behavior from early in development, according to a new study.
Retracing Antarctica's glacial past
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:17 EDT
More than 26,000 years ago, sea level was much lower than it is today partly because the ice sheets that jut out from the continent of Antarctica were enormous and covered by grounded ice -- ice that was fully attached to the seafloor. As the planet warmed, the ice sheets melted and contracted, and sea level began to rise. Researchers have discovered new information that illuminates how and when this global phenomenon occurred.
Genetic testing: Not a one-and-done deal
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:15 EDT
A study that reviewed genetic testing results from 1.45 million individuals found that nearly 25 percent of 'variants of uncertain significance' were subsequently reclassified -- sometimes as less likely to be associated with cancer, sometimes as more likely.
Transforming carbon dioxide
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:12 EDT
A new technique to increase the efficiency of carbon dioxide (CO2) electrolysis that may lead to the production of new chemicals and fuels.
Multimodal imaging shows strain can drive chemistry in a photovoltaic material
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:09 EDT
A unique combination of imaging tools and atomic-level simulations has allowed a team to solve a longstanding debate about the properties of a promising material that can harvest energy from light.
Seasonal reservoir filling in India deforms rock, may trigger earthquakes
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:07 EDT
The seasonal filling and emptying of reservoirs in India can cause measurable deformation of the surrounding rock, reducing the strength of nearby faults and potentially triggering earthquakes, according to two new articles.
Weathering rates for mined lands exponentially higher than unmined sites
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:05 EDT
A new study found a dramatic increase in the chemical weathering rates of mined landscapes, which are melting away bedrock up to 45 times faster than unmined areas. The weathering has global consequences for the cycling of sulfur, a key nutrient for all life forms.
The grim, final days of a mother octopus
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:02 EDT
A new study uses modern genetic sequencing tools to describe several distinct molecular signals produced by the optic gland after a female octopus reproduces. The research also details four separate phases of maternal behavior and links them to these signals, suggesting how the optic gland controls a mother octopus' demise.
Molecular channel that regulates blood pressure described
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:04:00 EDT
New research for the first time reveals the three-dimensional structure of a membrane channel that's critical in controlling blood pressure. The findings represent the first time the human epithelial sodium channel has been shown so precisely since it was first isolated and described through expression cloning more than two decades ago.
Diagnosing types of fear of falling in Parkinson's patients
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:03:56 EDT
Parkinson's disease causes one of the highest risks of falling among all neurological conditions. Due to this, many patients develop a fear of falling, even if they've never fallen. Researchers have discovered a way to diagnose subtypes of fear of falling in hopes of improving treatment and quality of life for patients.
Patterns in STEM grades of girls versus boys
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:44 EDT
A new study has explored patterns in academic grades of 1.6 million students, showing that girls and boys perform very similarly in STEM - including at the top of the class.
Skin wounds in older mice are less likely to scar
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:41 EDT
Researchers have discovered a rare example in which the mammalian body functions better in old age. A team has found that, in skin wounds in mice, being older increased tissue regeneration and decreased scar formation. The same findings were confirmed in studies of human tissue.
Study shows value of breast cancer patients seeking second opinions
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:38 EDT
In a recent study on the value of a second opinion for breast cancer patients, researchers concluded that a review by a tumor board at an NCI-Designated Cancer Center changed the diagnosis for 43 percent of the patients.
Promising novel treatment against Alzheimer's disease
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:35 EDT
New research reveals that a novel drug reverses memory deficits and stops Alzheimer disease pathology (AD) in an animal model. Importantly, this drug has already proven to be non-toxic for humans in a clinical setting and could, therefore, be brought quickly to trials in humans against AD.
Lifestyle intervention may mitigate weight gain due to ubiquitous contaminant
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:33 EDT
A new study finds that perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are associated with increases in weight, but exercise and diet may reduce the obesogenic effects of these environmental contaminants.
Improved approach to bone marrow transplant
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:30 EDT
Two recent studies present a new approach for bone marrow donation and transplant that preclinical laboratory tests suggest could make the life-saving procedure safer and more effective for patients. Researchers report the studies demonstrate that use of an experimental drug called CASIN in laboratory mice results in higher efficiency when harvesting blood stem cells from donors and less toxicity in transplant recipients.
Bacteria's 'password' for sporulation hasn't changed in 2.7 billion years
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:28 EDT
When it comes to changing their passwords, bacteria are just as bad as you and me -- maybe even worse. A research team has found that despite 2.7 billion years of evolution, bacteria are still using the same 'password' to initiate the process for making spores.
Heterometallic copper-aluminum superatom discovered
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:25 EDT
On the outside, the cluster made of 55 copper and aluminum atoms looks like a crystal, but chemically it has the properties of an atom. The heterometallic superatom which chemists have created provides the prerequisites for developing new, more cost-effective catalysts.
Tumor cell expansion challenges current physics
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:23 EDT
A malignant tumor is characterized by its ability to spread around its surroundings. To do so, tumor cells stick to the surrounding tissue (mainly collagen) and use forces to propel. New research reveals the forces these tumor cells use to spread. The relation between these forces and the cell movement goes beyond current physical laws, according to researchers.
Link between hunger and mood explained
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:18 EDT
The study used rats to examine the impact on emotional behavior of a sudden drop in blood sugar. When the rats were given a glucose blocker, researchers found they had higher levels of cortisol. They also showed signs of stress and sluggish behavior similar to a poor mood. To prove the behavior wasn't just a lack of glucose to the muscles, researchers then gave them a common antidepressant and the behavior disappeared.
Chemical engineers functionalize boron nitride with other nanosystems
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:52:13 EDT
Scientists report that treatment with a superacid causes boron nitride layers to separate into atomically thick sheets, while creating binding sites on the surface of these sheets that provide opportunities to interface with nanoparticles, molecules and other 2D nanomaterials, like graphene.
Termites: Advanced animal society can thrive without males
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:51 EDT
Termite colonies have been found to thrive and reproduce without males, new research reveals. The findings provide new evidence that males aren't required to maintain some advanced animal populations. They add momentum to questions about the impact and function of males in animal societies.
Screening using body mass index alone may miss every second preschooler with excess stomach fat
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:41 EDT
When assessing whether preschoolers are overweight, health professionals should use other measures such as waist-to-height ratio in addition to the body mass index (BMI). A study shows that this is because measuring the BMI of younger children often fails to identify those with excess stomach fat and possible associated health problems.
Cancer: Establishing metastasis
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:35 EDT
Scientists have discovered that a protein called VRK1 might help cancer to take root in new parts of the body. VRK1 was discovered to be necessary for mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, which scientists suspect may be important for the establishment of metastasis.
New species of dazzling, neon-colored fish
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:33 EDT
Named for Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love and beauty, a new species of dazzling, neon-colored fish from the twilight zone enchants scientists. It's only known home is the remote Brazilian archipelago of St. Paul's Rocks.
Indoor HEPA filters significantly reduce pollution indoors when outside air unhealthy, study finds
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:30 EDT
Outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to indoor air pollution -- but high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in the home significantly reduce fine-particulate matter in the air compared with non-HEPA air filters, according to a new study.
Molecule capable of halting and reverting Parkinson's neurodegeneration identified
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:28 EDT
The small SynuClean-D molecule interrupts the formation of the alpha-synuclein amyloid fibres responsible for the onset of Parkinson's disease, and reverts the neurodegeneration caused by the disease.
Infectious bacteria hibernate to evade antibiotics
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:25 EDT
Researchers have discovered a surprising tactic of pathogenic bacteria when being attacked by antibiotics: hibernation.
How leaves talk to roots
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:23 EDT
New findings show that a micro RNA from the shoot keeps legume roots susceptible to symbiotic infection by downregulating a gene that would otherwise hinder root responses to symbiotic bacteria. These findings help us understand what it takes to make nitrogen-fixing symbiosis efficient, and what we need to do to exploit it agronomically.
Illegal ivory dealers starting to use similar code words to hide online sales
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:20 EDT
Ivory sellers in Europe using eBay are using the same code words across different languages to covertly advertise items for sale, potentially making it easier for law enforcement agencies to uncover such activities by reducing the number of phrases they have to track.
Deciphering the link between skin allergies and the gut microbiota
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:17 EDT
Over the last few years, scientists have discovered connections between gut microbiota imbalances and various diseases. Now, in a study using mice, researchers have revealed a surprising relationship between a viral detection system, the composition of the gut microbiota, and the development of skin allergies. Their findings suggest potential new therapies.
Built-in sound amplifier helps male mosquitoes find females
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 11:00:14 EDT
The ears of male mosquitoes amplify the sound of an approaching female using a self-generated phantom tone that mimics the female's wingbeats, which increases the ear's acoustic input by a factor of up to 45,000, finds a new study.
New cause of brain bleeds identified
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 09:40:22 EDT
Neurologists have provided, for the first time, evidence that blood deposits in the brain may not require a blood vessel tear. The researchers found that brain endothelial cells, the cells that line blood vessels of the brain, have the capacity for engulfing red blood cells and depositing them outside the blood vessels and into the substance of the brain, without requiring a disruption of the vasculature.
Motor learning for precise motor execution
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 09:40:18 EDT
Scientists have identified acquisition of two types of internal models for motor control, which are likely to be stored in the cerebellum. They show that motor control in human hand reaching movement relies on two types of motor learning: (i) acquisition of explicit motor control and (ii) acquisition of implicit motor control.
Hybrid operating room streamlines diagnosis, treatment of lung cancer
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 09:10:28 EDT
Representing a paradigm shift in thoracic surgery, the hybrid operating room combines three techniques into a single appointment eliminating multiple clinical visits for improved patient experience and outcomes.
Artificial intelligence to improve drug combination design and personalized medicine
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 07:51:24 EDT
A new auto-commentary looks at how an emerging area of artificial intelligence, specifically the analysis of small systems-of-interest specific datasets, can be used to improve drug development and personalized medicine.
Exercise may delay cognitive decline in people with rare Alzheimer's disease
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 07:51:21 EDT
For individuals carrying a genetic mutation that causes Alzheimer's disease, engaging in at least 2.5 hours of physical activity per week may have beneficial effects on markers of Alzheimer's disease brain changes and may delay cognitive decline, according to a new study.
Lung inflammation from childhood asthma linked with later anxiety
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 07:51:17 EDT
Persistent lung inflammation may be one possible explanation for why having asthma during childhood increases your risk for developing anxiety later in life, according to researchers.
Genome duplication drives evolution of species
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 07:51:14 EDT
Polyploid plants have a duplicate set of chromosomes. As a result, large-scale genetic changes are therefore possible in the new species, making it more adaptable in comparison with the parental species, as has now been demonstrated by researchers using rockcress.
New drug blocks pancreatic cancer growth in mice, study finds
Tue, 25 Sep 2018 07:51:05 EDT
A newly developed drug can prevent the most common type of pancreatic cancer from growing and spreading in laboratory mice, according to a new study. The study also demonstrated in mice that the drug, Metavert, may prevent patients from developing a resistance to currently used pancreatic cancer chemotherapies.
Ancient mice discovered by climate cavers
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 18:50:50 EDT
The fossils of two extinct mice species have been discovered in caves in tropical Queensland by scientists tracking environment changes.
Birds' voiceboxes are odd ducks
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:45:09 EDT
Birds' voiceboxes are in their chests instead of their throats like mammals and reptiles. Scientists aren't sure how or why birds evolved these unique voiceboxes, but a new study sheds some light on how they came about. Similarities in the windpipes of birds, crocodiles, cats, mice, and salamanders suggest that birds' weird voiceboxes might have arisen from a windpipe reinforcement. From this, scientists can learn about the sounds bird ancestors -- dinosaurs -- made.
Common weed killer linked to bee deaths
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:45:06 EDT
Honey bees exposed to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, lose some of the beneficial bacteria in their guts and are more susceptible to infection and death from harmful bacteria. Scientists believe this is evidence that glyphosate might be contributing to the decline of honey bees and native bees around the world.
Evidence that addictive behaviors have strong links with ancient retroviral infection
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:45:03 EDT
New research shows that an ancient retrovirus -- HK2 -- is more frequently found in drug addicts and thus is significantly associated with addiction.
New earthquake risk model could better inform disaster planning
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:45:00 EDT
Researchers have developed a new way to model seismic risk, which they hope will better inform disaster risk reduction planning in earthquake-prone areas.
Wigner crystal -- not Mott insulator -- in 'magic-angle' graphene
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:44:57 EDT
Recently, scientists created a stir in the field of condensed matter physics when they showed that two sheets of graphene twisted at specific angles display two emergent phases of matter. After a careful review of the experimental data researchers say that the insulating behavior of the ''magic-angle'' graphene is not Mott insulation, but something even more profound -- a Wigner crystal.
How fruits got their eye-catching colors
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:44:52 EDT
New evidence supports the idea that plants owe their rainbow of fruit colors to the different animals that eat them. Researchers first had to get past the fact that most animals don't see colors quite the way humans do.
Doubts and dialogue may alter public perceptions of science
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:44:49 EDT
Science projects within controversial fields such as synthetic biology could benefit from experimenting with communication settings in which experts share their thoughts and feelings with each other and the public. This allows for a more open and constructive dialogue with the public about research - and may even generate new research ideas, new research suggests.
Astronomers use Earth's natural history as guide to spot vegetation on new worlds
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:44:46 EDT
By looking at Earth's full natural history and evolution, astronomers may have found a template for vegetation fingerprints -- borrowing from epochs of changing flora -- to determine the age of habitable exoplanets.
Violence in pre-Columbian Panama exaggerated, new study shows
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 17:44:44 EDT
An oft-cited publication said a pre-Colombian archaeological site in Panama showed signs of extreme violence. A new review of the evidence strongly suggests that the interpretation was wrong.
'Ground coffee' with soil perks in Brazil
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 16:21:46 EDT
Coffee harvesting is often done with heavy machinery that can compact the soil. Additionally, up to 20 percent of coffee berries fall to the ground. Researchers brewed up a solution to restore soil and decrease the loss.
Exploring links between senses and cognitive health
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 16:09:40 EDT
Experts are examining the link between impaired vision, hearing, and cognition.
Organs are not just bystanders, may be active participants in fighting autoimmune disease
Mon, 24 Sep 2018 16:09:37 EDT
Findings from mouse study suggest organs affected by autoimmune disease suppress immune cells using methods similar to those used by cancer cells to evade detection.