Matter & Energy News -- ScienceDaily
Ground and satellite observations map building damage after Beirut explosion
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 12:36:49 EDT
Days after the 4 August 2020 massive explosion at the port of Beirut in Lebanon, researchers were on the ground mapping the impacts of the explosion in the port and surrounding city. The goal was to document and preserve data on structural and fa├žade damage before rebuilding.
Fighting harmful bacteria with nanoparticles
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 12:36:16 EDT
Multi-resistant pathogens are a serious and increasing problem in today's medicine. Where antibiotics are ineffective, these bacteria can cause life-threatening infections. Researchers are currently developing nanoparticles that can be used to detect and kill multi-resistant pathogens that hide inside our body cells. The team published the study in the current issue of the journal Nanoscale.
The future looks bright for infinitely recyclable plastic
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 10:28:51 EDT
Plastics are ubiquitous, but they're not practical. Less than 10% are recycled, and the other approximately 8 billion tons are creating a pollution crisis. Researchers are determined to change that. A new analysis shows producing and recycling their game-changing new plastic could be easy and cheap enough to leave old plastics in the dust.
Faster air exchange in buildings not always beneficial for coronavirus levels
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 09:38:49 EDT
Vigorous and rapid air exchanges might not always be a good thing when it comes to levels of coronavirus particles in a multiroom building, according to a new modeling study. Particle levels can spike in downstream rooms shortly after rapid ventilation.
Average-risk individuals may prefer stool-based test over colonoscopy for cancer screening
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 09:38:29 EDT
When given a choice, most individuals with an average risk of colorectal cancer said they would prefer a stool-based screening test for colorectal cancer over colonoscopy, the method most often recommended by health care providers.
Collaborative research could help fine-tune the production of antimalarials, chemo drugs
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 20:01:24 EDT
Much of common pharmaceutical development today is the product of laborious cycles of tweaking and optimization. In each drug, a carefully concocted formula of natural and synthetic enzymes and ingredients works together to catalyze a desired reaction. But in early development, much of the process is spent determining what quantities of each enzyme to use to ensure a reaction occurs at a specific speed.
Detailed look at intriguing property of chiral materials
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 16:00:22 EDT
A new study is advancing scientists' understanding of magneto-chiral dichroism. The research focuses on light-matter interactions in chiral materials under a magnetic field.
Using floodwaters to weather droughts
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 15:12:58 EDT
Using a new computer framework, scientists are able to project future floodwaters under a changing climate. The approach could help California water managers plan for and redirect floodwaters toward groundwater aquifers, alleviating both flood and drought risks.
Scientists capture image of an electron's orbit within an exciton
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 15:12:49 EDT
Researchers have captured an image showing the internal orbits, or spatial distribution, of particles in an exciton - a goal that had eluded scientists for almost a century.
Mechanical engineers develop new high-performance artificial muscle technology
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 15:12:36 EDT
Researchers have developed a new, high-performance artificial muscle technology. The new technology enables more human-like motion due to its flexibility and adaptability, but outperforms human skeletal muscle in several metrics.
Fast material manipulation through a laser
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 15:12:21 EDT
Researchers have found out that ultrafast switches in material properties can be prompted by laser pulses -- and why. This knowledge may enable new transistor concepts.
Aerial photos uncover an invisible fault in Chinese city
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 15:12:18 EDT
Decades-old aerial photos of Yudong District, Datong City in Shanxi Province, Northern China have helped researchers in their search for a fault hidden underneath the city's buildings and cement roads, researchers said.
'Fingerprint' for 3D printer accurate 92% of time
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:47:08 EDT
New research shows 3D printers can be identified by thermodynamic properties, which could could aid intellectual property, security.
A growing problem of 'deepfake geography': How AI falsifies satellite images
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:46:57 EDT
Using satellite photos of three cities and drawing upon methods used to manipulate video and audio files, a team of researchers set out to identify new ways of detecting fake satellite photos and warn of the dangers of falsified geospatial data.
Pepper the robot talks to itself to improve its interactions with people
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:46:54 EDT
Ever wondered why your virtual home assistant doesn't understand your questions? Or why your navigation app took you on the side street instead of the highway? Researchers have now designed a robot that 'thinks out loud' so that users can hear its thought process and better understand the robot's motivations and decisions.
Jane Austen quote encoded in a polymer
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:46:51 EDT
Using a novel molecular-data-storage technique, researchers have encoded a quote from Jane Austen's classic novel Mansfield Park in a series of oligomers, which a third party could read back without prior knowledge of the structures that encoded the passage.
In calculating the social cost of methane, equity matters
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:46:30 EDT
A new study reports that the social cost of methane - a greenhouse gas that is 30 times as potent as carbon dioxide in its ability to trap heat - varies by as much as an order of magnitude between industrialized and developing regions of the world.
Bi-stable pop-up structures inspired by origami
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:46:27 EDT
Researchers have developed bi-stable inflatable structures inspired by origami.
To design truly compostable plastic, scientists take cues from nature
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:46:24 EDT
Scientists have designed an enzyme-activated compostable plastic that could diminish microplastics pollution. Household tap water or soil composts break the hybrid plastic material down to reusable small molecules, called monomers, in just a few days or weeks.
Solar panels are contagious - but in a good way
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:45:35 EDT
The number of solar panels within shortest distance from a house is the most important factor in determining the likelihood of that house having a solar panel, when compared with a host of socio-economic and demographic variables. This is shown in a new study by scientists using satellite and census data of the city of Fresno in the US, and employing machine learning.
Cracking open the mystery of how many bubbles are in a glass of beer
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:45:27 EDT
After pouring beer into a glass, streams of little bubbles appear and start to rise, forming a foamy head. As the bubbles burst, the released carbon dioxide gas imparts the beverage's desirable tang. But just how many bubbles are in that drink? By examining various factors, researchers estimate between 200,000 and nearly 2 million of these tiny spheres can form in a gently poured lager.
Illuminating invisible bloody fingerprints with a fluorescent polymer
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:45:25 EDT
Careful criminals usually clean a scene, wiping away visible blood and fingerprints. However, prints made with trace amounts of blood, invisible to the naked eye, could remain. Dyes can detect these hidden prints, but the dyes don't work well on certain surfaces. Now, researchers have developed a fluorescent polymer that binds to blood in a fingerprint -- without damaging any DNA also on the surface -- to create high-contrast images.
Identification of the wettability of graphene layers at the molecular level
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 10:09:21 EDT
Scientists identify the wettability of graphene layers and improve the understanding of graphene interface properties at molecular levels.
Energy unleashed by submarine volcanoes could power a continent
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 08:29:10 EDT
Volcanic eruptions deep in our oceans are capable of extremely powerful releases of energy, at a rate high enough to power the whole of the United States, according to new research.
New conductive polymer ink opens for next-generation printed electronics
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 08:28:49 EDT
Researchers have developed a stable high-conductivity polymer ink. The advance paves the way for innovative printed electronics with high energy efficiency.
Helpful, engineered 'living' machines in the future?
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 18:31:41 EDT
Engineered, autonomous machines combined with artificial intelligence have long been a staple of science fiction, and often in the role of villain like the Cylons in the 'Battlestar Galactica' reboot, creatures composed of biological and engineered materials. But what if these autonomous soft machines were ... helpful?
Combining light, superconductors could boost AI capabilities
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 13:10:57 EDT
As artificial intelligence has attracted interest, researchers are focused on understanding how the brain accomplishes cognition so they can construct systems with general intelligence comparable to humans' intelligence. Researchers propose an approach to AI that focuses on integrating photonic components with superconducting electronics; using light for communication and complex electronic circuits for computation could enable artificial cognitive systems of scale and functionality beyond what can be achieved with either light or electronics alone.
Marine animals inspire new approaches to structural topology optimization
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 13:10:54 EDT
Researchers have uncovered a new approach to structural topology optimization is outlined that unifies both design and manufacturing to create novel microstructures. Potential applications range from improved facial implants for cranial reconstruction to better ways to get materials into space for planetary exploration.
Boosting fiber optics communications with advanced quantum-enhanced receiver
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 13:10:51 EDT
Fiber optic technology is the holy grail of high-speed, long-distance telecommunications. Still, with the continuing exponential growth of internet traffic, researchers are warning of a capacity crunch. Researchers show how quantum-enhanced receivers could play a critical role in addressing this challenge. The scientists developed a method to enhance receivers based on quantum physics properties to dramatically increase network performance while significantly reducing the error bit rate and energy consumption.
Reversal of blood droplet flight predicted, captured in experiments
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 12:15:33 EDT
To search for answers about how blood droplets from a gunshot wound can reverse direction while in flight, researchers explored the influence of propellant gases on blood backspatter. They report using numeric modeling to capture the behavior of gun muzzle gases and predict the reversal of blood droplet flight, which was captured experimentally. Their experiments also show the breakup of blood droplets, a future extension of their modeling efforts.