Matter & Energy News -- ScienceDaily
Unprecedented three-dimensional X-ray microscope methodology to image plants at cellular resolution
Tue, 07 Dec 2021 10:20:00 EST
Measuring plant phenotypes, a term used to describe the observable characteristics of an organism, is a critical aspect of studying and improving economically important crops. Phenotypes central to the breeding process include traits like kernel number in corn, seed size in wheat, or fruit color in grape. These features are visible to the naked human eye but are in fact driven by microscopic molecular and cellular processes in the plant. Using three-dimensional (3D) imaging is a recent innovation in the plant biology sector to capture phenotypes on the 'whole-plant' scale: from miniscule cells and organelles in the roots, up to the leaves and flowers. However, current 3D imaging processes are limited by time-consuming sample preparation and by imaging depth, usually reaching only a few layers of cells within a plant tissue.
Stem cell study paves way for manufacturing cultured meat
Tue, 07 Dec 2021 09:24:49 EST
Scientists have for the first time obtained stem cells from livestock that grow under chemically defined conditions, paving the way for manufacturing cell cultured meat and breeding enhanced livestock.
Researchers develop an antibody-drug delivery system
Tue, 07 Dec 2021 09:24:38 EST
Researchers have developed the first metal-organic framework (MOFs) antibody-drug delivery system that has the potential to fast-track potent new therapies for cancer, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases.
Sodium-based material yields stable alternative to lithium-ion batteries
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 22:00:40 EST
Scientists have developed a new sodium metal anode for rechargeable batteries that resists the formation of dendrites, a common problem with standard sodium metal anodes that can lead to shorting and fires.
Researcher pushes limit of when water will freeze
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 22:00:22 EST
An engineer is changing what we know about when water freezes as he pushes the limit and gets the best look yet at tiny drops of water as they freeze.
Battery 'dream technology' a step closer to reality with new discovery
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 22:00:20 EST
A sodium-sulfur battery solves one of the biggest hurdles that has held back the technology as a commercially viable alternative to the ubiquitous lithium-ion batteries that power everything from smartphones to electric vehicles.
New type of earthquake discovered
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 11:31:08 EST
A research team has documented a new type of earthquake in an injection environment in British Columbia, Canada. The seismic events are slower than conventional earthquakes. Their existence supports a scientific theory that until now had not been sufficiently substantiated by measurements.
Researchers crack the synthetic code of rare molecules sought after in drug development
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 11:30:57 EST
A research team has succeeded in producing two molecules that are otherwise only formed by microorganisms from extremely contaminated wastewater in an abandoned mine in South Korea. The method, which took four years to develop, could pave the way for new types of drugs.
Liquid crystals for fast switching devices
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 11:30:49 EST
An international team has investigated a newly synthesized liquid-crystalline material that promises applications in optoelectronics. Simple rod-shaped molecules with a single center of chirality self-assemble into helical structures at room temperature. Using soft X-ray resonant scattering at BESSY II, the scientists have now been able to determine the pitch of the helical structure with high precision. Their results indicate an extremely short pitch at only about 100 nanometres which would enable applications with particularly fast switching processes.
Teaching an old chemical new tricks
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 11:29:56 EST
Chemists have put a new spin on an old catalyst called 'Barton's base' to invent a faster, 'greener' chemical reaction. Their new chemistry speeds up molecule synthesis used for discovering new materials and drugs.
X-ray laser reveals how radiation damage arises
Mon, 06 Dec 2021 09:06:17 EST
An international research team has used the X-ray laser European XFEL to gain new insights into how radiation damage occurs in biological tissue. The study reveals in detail how water molecules are broken apart by high-energy radiation, creating potentially hazardous radicals and electrically charged ions, which can go on to trigger harmful reactions in the organism.
Chemical pollutants disrupt reproduction in anemonefish
Sun, 05 Dec 2021 11:17:07 EST
Ocean pollution is unfortunately becoming more commonplace, raising concerns over the effect of chemicals that are leaching into the water. In a new study, researchers have discovered how these chemicals can affect the reproduction in common anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris.
Immune system-stimulating nanoparticle could lead to more powerful vaccines
Fri, 03 Dec 2021 15:14:20 EST
Researchers designed a new nanoparticle adjuvant that may be more potent than others now in use. Studies in mice showed it significantly improved antibody production following vaccination against HIV, diphtheria and influenza.
Printing technique creates effective skin equivalent, heals wounds
Fri, 03 Dec 2021 13:12:13 EST
Researchers have developed an approach to print skin equivalents, which may play a future role in facilitating the healing of chronic wounds. They used suspended layer additive manufacturing, creating a gel-like material to support the skin equivalent that can then support a second phase of gel injection. During printing, the skin layers are deposited within the support gel. After printing, the team washed away the support material, leaving behind the layered skin equivalent.
Combined heat and power as a platform for clean energy systems
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 19:11:54 EST
The state of Georgia could dramatically reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, while creating new jobs and a healthier public, if more of its energy-intensive industries and commercial buildings were to utilize combined heat and power (CHP), according to the latest research.
Wild blue wonder: X-ray beam explores food color protein
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 19:11:52 EST
A natural food colorant called phycocyanin provides a fun, vivid blue in soft drinks, but it is unstable on grocery shelves. A synchrotron is helping to steady it.
Twisting elusive quantum particles with a quantum computer
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 15:39:27 EST
While the number of qubits and the stability of quantum states are still limiting current quantum computing devices, there are questions where these processors are already able to leverage their enormous computing power. Scientists used a quantum processor to simulate the ground state of a so-called toric code Hamiltonian -- an archetypical model system in modern condensed matter physics, which was originally proposed in the context of quantum error correction.
Another reason why batteries can’t charge in minutes
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 15:39:18 EST
Researchers find new issue complicating fast charging.
Novel 3D printing technique to engineer biofilms
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:16:14 EST
Biologists are studying how engineered biofilms closely mimic natural ones. Their research may aid in developing drugs to fight the negative effects of these microorganisms that adhere to surfaces.
Researchers develop an algorithm to increase the efficiency of quantum computers
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:15:43 EST
Quantum computing is taking a new leap forward due to new research. The team of researchers have proposed a scheme to reduce the number of calculations needed to read out data stored in the state of a quantum processor. This, in turn, will make quantum computers more efficient, faster, and ultimately more sustainable.
Artificial material protects light states on smallest length scales
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:15:40 EST
Light not only plays a key role as an information carrier for optical computer chips, but also in particular for the next generation of quantum computers. Its lossless guidance around sharp corners on tiny chips and the precise control of its interaction with other light are the focus of research worldwide. Scientists have now demonstrated the spatial confinement of a light wave to a point smaller than the wavelength in a 'topological photonic crystal.'
Air quality models can improve the accuracy of forecasts of daily solar power production in the future
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:15:38 EST
The expansion of renewable energies is placing increasing demands on the power grids. Precise forecasts of the amount of solar power that will be fed into the grid is key to effective energy management. In addition to clouds, aerosol particles also strongly influence the amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic systems. Current air quality models are a good basis for estimating the production of solar electricity, but they could be further improved.
Physicists exploit space and time symmetries to control quantum materials
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:15:35 EST
Physicists have developed a theory describing how space reflection and time reversal symmetries can be exploited, allowing for greater control of transport and correlations within quantum materials.
Light-powered soft robots could suck up oil spills
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:15:26 EST
A floating, robotic film could be trained to hoover oil spills at sea or remove contaminants from drinking water.
Perovskite solar cells soar to new heights
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:15:20 EST
Researchers have developed a novel method to fabricate lead halide perovskite solar cells with record efficiency.
Never-before-seen state of matter: Quantum spin liquids
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:14:38 EST
Physicists said they have finally experimentally documented quantum spin liquids, a long sought-after exotic state of matter. The work marks a big step toward being able to produce this elusive state on demand and to gain a novel understanding of its mysterious nature.
Color-changing magnifying glass gives clear view of infrared light
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 14:14:33 EST
By trapping light into tiny crevices of gold, researchers have coaxed molecules to convert invisible infrared into visible light, creating new low-cost detectors for sensing.
Green information technologies: Superconductivity meets spintronics
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 13:24:40 EST
Superconducting coupling between two regions separated by a one micron wide ferromagnetic compound has been proved by an international team. This macroscopic quantum effect, known as Josephson effect, generates an electrical current within the ferromagnetic compound made of superconducting Cooper-pairs. Magnetic imaging of the ferromagnetic region at BESSY II has contributed to demonstrate that the spin of the electrons forming the Cooper pairs are equal. These results pave the way for low-power consumption superconducting spintronic-applications where spin-polarized currents can be protected by quantum coherence.
Two-photon microscope provides unprecedented brain-imaging ability
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 12:30:08 EST
Advancing our understanding of the human brain will require new insights into how neural circuitry works in mammals, including laboratory mice. These investigations require monitoring brain activity with a microscope that provides resolution high enough to see individual neurons and their neighbors.
Growing carbon footprint for plastics
Thu, 02 Dec 2021 11:35:04 EST
After analyzing the global plastics supply chain, researchers found that the impact of plastics on the climate and health is greater than thought due to the increased use of coal for process heat, electricity and as a raw material in production.