Drugs and Bugs: The Gut-Brain Axis and Substance Use Disorders
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a significant public health crisis. Worldwide, 5.4% of the global disease burden is attributed to SUDs and alcohol use, and many more use psychoactive substances recreationally. Often associated with comorbidities, SUDs result in changes to both brain function and physiological responses. Mounting evidence calls for a precision approach for the treatment and diagnosis of SUDs, and the gut microbiome is emerging as a contributor to such disorders. Over the...
Needles in haystacks: reevaluating old paradigms for the discovery of bacterial secondary metabolites
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Covering: up to 2021Natural products research is in the midst of a renaissance ushered in by a modern understanding of microbiology and the technological explosions of genomics and metabolomics. As the exploration of uncharted chemical space expands into high-throughput discovery campaigns, it has become increasingly clear how design elements influence success: (bio)geography, habitat, community dynamics, culturing/induction methods, screening methods, dereplication, and more. We explore...
Systematic Review and meta-analysis: efficacy of vancomycin taper and pulse regimens in clostridioides difficile infection
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Limitations of our analysis are a small number of included studies and heterogeneity. Vancomycin taper-and-pulse seems superior to pulse alone or taper alone for recurrent CDI. A randomized controlled trial comparing vancomycin taper-and-pulse to fidaxomicin and microbiome restoration is needed.
Dietary Energy Level Impacts the Performance of Donkeys by Manipulating the Gut Microbiome and Metabolome
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Considerable evidence suggests that dietary energy levels and gut microbiota are pivotal for animal health and productivity. However, little information exists about the correlations among dietary energy level, performance, and the gut microbiota and metabolome of donkeys. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which dietary energy content dictates the growth performance by modulating the intestinal microbiome and metabolome of donkeys. Thirty-six nine-month-old male...
Network of Interactions Between Gut Microbiome, Host Biomarkers, and Urine Metabolome in Carotid Atherosclerosis
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Comprehensive analyses of multi-omics data may provide insights into interactions between different biological layers concerning distinct clinical features. We integrated data on the gut microbiota, blood parameters and urine metabolites of treatment-naive individuals presenting a wide range of metabolic disease phenotypes to delineate clinically meaningful associations. Trans-omics correlation networks revealed that candidate gut microbial biomarkers and urine metabolite feature were covaried...
Bacillus velezensis AP183 Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Proliferation in Murine and Bovine Disease Models
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The increasing frequency of S. aureus antimicrobial resistance has spurred interest in identifying alternative therapeutants. We investigated the S. aureus-inhibitory capacity of B. velezensis strains in mouse and bovine models. Among multiple B. velezensis strains that inhibited S. aureus growth in vitro, B. velezensis AP183 provided the most potent inhibition of S. aureus proliferation and bioluminescence in a mouse cutaneous wound (P = 0.02). Histology revealed abundant Gram-positive cocci in...
Long-Term Mootral Application Impacts Methane Production and the Microbial Community in the Rumen Simulation Technique System
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Methane emissions by ruminants contribute to global warming and result in a loss of dietary energy for the animals. One possibility of reducing methane emissions is by dietary strategies. In the present trial, we investigated the long-term effects of Mootral, a feed additive consisting of garlic powder (Allium sativum) and bitter orange extracts (Citrus aurantium), on fermentation parameters and the microbial community in the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) system. The experiment lasted 38...
Clinical Interventions and Budding Applications of Probiotics in the Treatment and Prevention of Viral Infections
Mon, 25 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Over the period, viral infections remain the utmost challenge in front of the scientific community. Continuous shifting and drafting of viral antigenic peptides are the main drivers in the development of antiviral drug resistance. The resurgence of disease, difficulties facing the development of an effective vaccine and undesirable immunological outcomes, foster to develop an alternative therapeutic approach to combat viral infections. Biomimetic nature of viral particles competent to invade the...
Caffeine consumption and schizophrenia: A highlight on adenosine receptor-independent mechanisms
Sun, 24 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Schizophrenia is a common psychiatric disorder which affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. However, the complexity of etiology, treatment resistance and side effects induced by current antipsychotics, relapse prevention, and psychosocial rehabilitation are still to be uncovered. Caffeine, as the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug, plays a crucial role in daily life. Plenty of preclinical and clinical evidence has illustrated that caffeine consumption could have a...
Impact of gut microbiota on kidney transplantation
Sun, 24 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Kidney transplantation is recognized as one of the most effective treatments for patients who suffer from end-stage renal disease. The major potential outcomes following kidney transplantation include engraftment, rejection, and associated complications. The outcomes are dependent on a variety of factors in those who underwent renal grafts or kidney transplant recipients. Those factors include the administration of immunosuppressive drugs and prophylactic antimicrobial agents to recipients....
Investigation of the metabolites of five major constituents from Berberis amurensis in normal and pseudo germ-free rats
Sun, 24 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Berberis amurensis (Berberidaceae) is a traditional Chinese medicine, which is often used to treat hypertension, inflammation, dysentery and enteritis. It contains alkaloids, mainly including berberine, berbamine, magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine and palmatine. Berberis amurensis extracts (BAEs) is often orally taken. Oral herbs might be metabolized by intestinal bacteria in the small intestine. However, the interaction between the herb and the gut microbiota is still unknown. In the current study,...
Dichotomous metabolic networks govern human ILC2 proliferation and function
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) represent innate homologs of type 2 helper T cells (T(H)2) that participate in immune defense and tissue homeostasis through production of type 2 cytokines. While T lymphocytes metabolically adapt to microenvironmental changes, knowledge of human ILC2 metabolism is limited, and its key regulators are unknown. Here, we show that circulating 'naive' ILC2s have an unexpected metabolic profile with a higher level of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) than...
Targeting strategies for oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy: clinical syndrome, molecular basis, and drug development
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Oxaliplatin (OHP)-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) is a severe clinical problem and potentially permanent side effect of cancer treatment. For the management of OIPN, accurate diagnosis and understanding of significant risk factors including genetic vulnerability are essential to improve knowledge regarding the prevalence and incidence of OIPN as well as enhance strategies for the prevention and treatment of OIPN. The molecular mechanisms underlying OIPN are complex, with multi-targets...
Gut microbiota: a potential target for traditional Chinese medicine intervention in coronary heart disease
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common ischaemic heart disease whose pathological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Single target drugs, such as antiplatelet aggregation, coronary artery dilation and lipid-lowering medicines, can relieve some symptoms clinically but cannot effectively prevent and treat CHD. Accumulating evidence has revealed that alterations in GM composition, diversity, and richness are associated with the risk of CHD. The metabolites of the gut microbiota (GM),...
Grouping Hypotheses and an Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment of Nanomaterials Following Oral Ingestion
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The risk assessment of ingested nanomaterials (NMs) is an important issue. Here we present nine integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATAs) to group ingested NMs following predefined hypotheses. The IATAs are structured as decision trees and tiered testing strategies for each decision node to support a grouping decision. Implications (e.g., regulatory or precautionary) per group are indicated. IATAs integrate information on durability and biopersistence (dissolution kinetics) to...
The Role of Carrageenan in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Allergic Reactions: Where Do We Stand?
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Carrageenan (CGN) is a high molecular weight polysaccharide extracted from red seaweeds, composed of D-galactose residues linked in β-1,4 and α-1,3 galactose-galactose bond, widely used as a food additive in processed foods for its properties as a thickener, gelling agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. In recent years, with the spread of the Western diet (WD), its consumption has increased. Nonetheless, there is a debate on its safety. CGN is extensively used as an inflammatory and adjuvant agent...
Genetic Characterisation of South African and Mozambican Bovine Rotaviruses Reveals a Typical Bovine-like Artiodactyl Constellation Derived through Multiple Reassortment Events
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
This study presents whole genomes of seven bovine rotavirus strains from South Africa and Mozambique. Double-stranded RNA, extracted from stool samples without prior adaptation to cell culture, was used to synthesise cDNA using a self-annealing anchor primer ligated to dsRNA and random hexamers. The cDNA was subsequently sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform without prior genome amplification. All strains exhibited bovine-like artiodactyl genome constellations...
Evidence of HIV-1 Genital Shedding after One Year of Antiretroviral Therapy in Females Recently Diagnosed in Bamako, Mali
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Little is known about the dynamic of HIV-1 shedding and resistance profiles in the female genital reservoir after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in resource-limited countries (RLCs), which is critical for evaluating the residual sexual HIV-1 transmission risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 1 year duration ART at blood and genital levels in females newly diagnosed for HIV-1 from three centers in Bamako, Mali. Seventy-eight consenting females were enrolled at the...
Enrofloxacin Alters Fecal Microbiota and Resistome Irrespective of Its Dose in Calves
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone drug used to prevent and control bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in multiple or single doses, ranging from 7.5 to 12.5 mg/kg body weight. Here, we examined the effects of high and low doses of a single subcutaneously injected enrofloxacin on gut microbiota and resistome in calves. Thirty-five calves sourced for this study were divided into five groups: control (n = 7), two low dose groups (n = 14, 7.5 mg/kg), and two high dose groups (n = 14, 12.5...
Continuous Sugarcane Planting Negatively Impacts Soil Microbial Community Structure, Soil Fertility, and Sugarcane Agronomic Parameters
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Continuous planting has a negative impact on sugarcane plant growth and reduces global sugarcane crop production, including in China. The response of soil bacteria, fungal, and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungal communities to continuous sugarcane cultivation has not been thoroughly documented. Using MiSeq sequencing technology, we analyzed soil samples from sugarcane fields with 1, 10, and 30 years of continuous cropping to see how monoculture time affected sugarcane yield, its rhizosphere soil...
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS): An Overview
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic systemic disease that manifests via various symptoms such as chronic fatigue, post-exertional malaise, and cognitive impairment described as "brain fog". These symptoms often prevent patients from keeping up their pre-disease onset lifestyle, as extended periods of physical or mental activity become almost impossible. However, the disease presents heterogeneously with varying severity across patients. Therefore, consensus...
The Auto-Brewery Syndrome: A Perfect Metabolic "Storm" with Clinical and Forensic Implications
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Auto-brewery syndrome (ABS) is a rare, unstudied, unknown, and underreported phenomenon in modern medicine. Patients with this syndrome become inebriated and may suffer the medical and social implications of alcoholism, including arrest for inebriated driving. The pathophysiology of ABS is reportedly due to a fungal type dysbiosis of the gut that ferments some carbohydrates into ethanol and may mimic a food allergy or intolerance. This syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic...
Sunlight Exposure and Phototherapy: Perspectives for Healthy Aging in an Era of COVID-19
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Most humans depend on sunlight exposure to satisfy their requirements for vitamin D(3). However, the destruction of the ozone layer in the past few decades has increased the risk of skin aging and wrinkling caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which may also promote the risk of skin cancer development. The promotion of public health recommendations to avoid sunlight exposure would reduce the risk of skin cancer, but it would also enhance the risk of vitamin D(3)...
Mining the Microbiome and Microbiota-Derived Molecules in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The intestinal microbiota is a complex community that consists of an ecosystem with a dynamic interplay between bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses. Recent advances in model systems have revealed that the gut microbiome is critical for maintaining homeostasis through metabolic digestive function, immune regulation, and intestinal barrier integrity. Taxonomic shifts in the intestinal microbiota are strongly correlated with a multitude of human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease...
Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against Acute Toxicity Caused by Different Food-Derived Forms of Cadmium in Mice
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to almost every human organ. Oral supplementation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been reported to alleviate cadmium toxicity. However, research on the mitigation of cadmium toxicity by LAB is still limited to inorganic cadmium, which is not representative of the varied forms of cadmium ingested daily. In this study, different foodborne forms of cadmium were adopted to establish an in vivo toxicity model, including cadmium-glutathione,...
Discovery of a Metabolic Signature Predisposing High Risk Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment to Converting to Alzheimer's Disease
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Assessing dementia conversion in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains challenging owing to pathological heterogeneity. While many MCI patients ultimately proceed to Alzheimer's disease (AD), a subset of patients remain stable for various times. Our aim was to characterize the plasma metabolites of nineteen MCI patients proceeding to AD (P-MCI) and twenty-nine stable MCI (S-MCI) patients by untargeted metabolomics profiling. Alterations in the plasma metabolites between the P-MCI...
Commercial Bio-Packaging to Preserve the Quality and Extend the Shelf-Life of Vegetables: The Case-Study of Pumpkin Samples Studied by a Multimethodological Approach
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
A multidisciplinary protocol is proposed to monitor the preservation of fresh pumpkin samples (FP) using three commercial polymeric films: A made of biodegradable cellophane from regenerated cellulose pulp; B from corn starch, cassava and eucalyptus, C made of polylactic acid from corn starch, and a polyethylene film used as reference (REF). Chemical, mechanical and microbiological analyses were applied on packaging and fresh and packaged samples at different times. After an 11-day period, NMR...
First Metabolic Insights into Ex Vivo Cryptosporidium parvum-Infected Bovine Small Intestinal Explants Studied under Physioxic Conditions
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum causes thousands of human deaths yearly. Since bovines represent the most important reservoir of C. parvum, the analysis of infected bovine small intestinal (BSI) explants cultured under physioxia offers a realistic model to study C. parvum-host cell-microbiome interactions. Here, C. parvum-infected BSI explants and primary bovine small intestinal epithelial cells were analysed for parasite development and metabolic reactions. Metabolic conversion rates in...
Live Biosensors for Ultrahigh-Throughput Screening of Antimicrobial Activity against Gram-Negative Bacteria
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Gram-negative pathogens represent an urgent threat due to their intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance. Many recent drug candidates display prominent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria being inefficient against Gram-negative pathogens. Ultrahigh-throughput, microfluidics-based screening techniques represent a new paradigm for deep profiling of antibacterial activity and antibiotic discovery. A key stage of this technology is based on single-cell cocultivation of...
Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of the Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles of the Red Sea Sponge Phyllospongia lamellosa Supported by Metabolomics Analysis and Docking Study
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
BACKGROUND: The Red Sea sponges have been endorsed as a plentiful source of bioactive compounds with promising anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities; therefore, exploring their potential as a source of anti-cancer metabolites has stimulated a growing research interest.
Does Chemotherapy-Induced Gastrointestinal Mucositis Affect the Bioavailability and Efficacy of Anti-Infective Drugs?
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Antimicrobial prophylaxis is increasingly being used in patients with hematological malignancies receiving high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, few studies have focused on the potential impact of gastrointestinal mucositis (GI-M), a frequently observed side effect of chemotherapy in patients with cancer that affects the gastrointestinal microenvironment, on drug absorption. In this review, we discuss how chemotherapy leads to an overall loss of...
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Lean and Non-Obese Individuals: Current and Future Challenges
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which approximately affects a quarter of the world's population, has become a major public health concern. Although usually associated with excess body weight, it may also affect normal-weight individuals, a condition termed as lean/non-obese NAFLD. The prevalence of lean/non-obese NAFLD is around 20% within the NAFLD population, and 5% within the general population. Recent data suggest that individuals with lean NAFLD, despite the absence of obesity,...
Cardiovascular Diseases and Pharmacomicrobiomics: A Perspective on Possible Treatment Relevance
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the most common cause of mortality in rich countries, include a wide variety of pathologies of the heart muscle and vascular system that compromise the proper functioning of the heart. Most of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are well-known: lipid disorders, high serum LDL cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, obesity, diabetes, male sex and physical inactivity. Currently, much evidence shows that: (i) the human microbiota plays a crucial role in...
Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOCs): An Impending Global Crisis
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The worldwide battle against the SARS-CoV-2 virus rages on, with millions infected and many innocent lives lost. The causative organism, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a beta coronavirus that belongs to the Coronaviridae family. Many clinically significant variants have emerged, as the virus's genome is prone to various mutations, leading to antigenic drift and resulting in evasion of host immune recognition. The current variants of concern (VOCs) include...
Inflammatory Mediators and Gut Microbial Toxins Drive Colon Tumorigenesis by IL-23 Dependent Mechanism
Sat, 23 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Obesity-associated chronic inflammation predisposes colon cancer risk development. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a potential inflammatory mediator linking obesity to chronic colonic inflammation, altered gut microbiome, and colon carcinogenesis. We aimed to elucidate the role of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and gut bacterial toxins in priming dendritic cells and macrophages for IL-23 secretion to promote colon tumor progression. To investigate the association of IL-23 with obesity and colon...
Cathepsin c inhibition as a potential treatment strategy in cancer
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Epidemiological studies established an association between chronic inflammation and higher risk of cancer. Inhibition of proteolytic enzymes represents a potential treatment strategy for cancer and prevention of cancer metastasis. Cathepsin C (CatC) is a highly conserved lysosomal cysteine dipeptidyl aminopeptidase required for the activation of pro-inflammatory neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs, elastase, proteinase 3, cathepsin G and NSP-4). NSPs are locally released by activated neutrophils...
Dynamic Evolution and Correlation between Metabolites and Microorganisms during Manufacturing Process and Storage of Fu Brick Tea
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Fu brick tea (FBT) is one of the major brands of dark tea. Microbial fermentation is considered the key step in the development of the special characteristics of FBT. The systemic corelationship of the microbiome and metabolomics during manufacture of Fu brick tea is not fully understood. In this study, we comprehensively explored the microbiome and metabolite dynamic evolution during the FBT manufacturing processes, and revealed decisive factors for the quality and safety of FBT based on the...
Metabolomics and Inflammatory Mediator Profiling for the Differentiation of Life-Threatening and Non-Severe Appendicitis in the Pediatric Population
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
While children with appendicitis often have excellent clinical outcomes, some develop life-threatening complications including sepsis and organ dysfunction requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) support. Our study applied a metabolomics and inflammatory protein mediator (IPM) profiling approach to determine the bio-profiles of children who developed severe appendicitis compared with those that did not. We performed a prospective case-control study of children aged 0-17 years with a...
Are Fecal Metabolome and Microbiota Profiles Correlated with Autism Severity? A Cross-Sectional Study on ASD Preschoolers
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) make up a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communication difficulties associated with repetitive and restrictive behaviors. Besides core features, metabolic imbalances, inflammation, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and altered gut microbiota composition were often described in association with ASD, but their connection with the severity of autism (SA) remains unexplored. In this study, fecal metabolome, microbiota,...
Metabolomics, Microbiota, and In Vivo and In Vitro Biomarkers in Type 2 Severe Asthma: A Perspective Review
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Precision medicine refers to the tailoring of therapeutic strategies to the individual characteristics of each patient; thus, it could be a new approach for the management of severe asthma that considers individual variability in genes, environmental exposure, and lifestyle. Precision medicine would also assist physicians in choosing the right treatment, the best timing of administration, consequently trying to maximize drug efficacy, and, possibly, reducing adverse events. Metabolomics is the...
Intestinal microbiome and metabolome analyses reveal metabolic disorders in the early stage of renal transplantation
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Renal transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage renal disease, but the long-term prognosis of organs after transplantation is not ideal. In recent years, the importance of gut microbes and metabolites in the study of disease mechanisms has gradually received attention. However, the coordination between gut microbes and the metabolism of renal transplant patients needs further study. We integrated 16s sequencing and metabolomics data to describe the changes in the serum and...
Immunopathogenesis and management of polymorphic light eruption
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is the most common immunologically-mediated photodermatosis, demonstrating many abnormalities caused by critical failure of UV-induced immunosuppression. The unique expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in PLE, which is most likely determined by alteration of microbiome components upon UV exposure, implicates their possible triggering role and pathogenic significance in the eruption. The review aims to clarify current knowledge regarding the immunological...
A microbiome short circuit in prostate cancer
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
No abstract
Comparison of bacteria disintegration methods and their influence on data analysis in metabolomics
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Metabolomic experiments usually contain many different steps, each of which can strongly influence the obtained results. In this work, metabolic analyses of six bacterial strains were performed in light of three different bacterial cell disintegration methods. Three strains were gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae), and three were gram-positive (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis). For extraction, the...
Metabolic flux sampling predicts strain-dependent differences related to aroma production among commercial wine yeasts
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this approach proved useful in elucidating key reactions in amino acid, carbon, and glycerophospholipid metabolism which suggest genetic divergence in activity in metabolic subsystems among these wine strains related to the observed differences in VOC formation. The findings in this study could steer more focused research endeavors in developing or selecting optimal aroma-producing yeast stains for winemaking and other types of alcoholic fermentations.
Activation of ectopic olfactory receptor 544 induces GLP-1 secretion and regulates gut inflammation
Fri, 22 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Olfactory receptors are ectopically expressed in extra-nasal tissues. The gut is constantly exposed to high levels of odorants where ectopic olfactory receptors may play critical roles. Activation of ectopic olfactory receptor 544 (Olfr544) by azelaic acid (AzA), an Olfr544 ligand, reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) by regulating fuel preference to fats. Herein, we investigated the novel function of Olfr544 in the gut. In GLUTag cells, AzA induces the cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling...
A Pilot Study on Clinical Scores, Immune Cell Modulation, and Microbiota Composition in Allergic Patients with Rhinitis and Asthma Treated with a Probiotic Preparation
Thu, 21 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Present study suggests that iPROB® preparation has clinical/biological properties to be a valid add-on supplementation in allergic patients with asthma and rhinitis.
Longitudinal Multi-Omics Study of a Mother-Infant Dyad from Breastfeeding to Weaning: An Individualized Approach to Understand the Interactions Among Diet, Fecal Metabolome and Microbiota Composition
Thu, 21 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The development of the human gut microbiota is characterized by a dynamic sequence of events from birth to adulthood, which make the gut microbiota unique for everyone. Its composition and metabolism may play a critical role in the intestinal homeostasis and health. We propose a study on a single mother-infant dyad to follow the dynamics of an infant fecal microbiota and metabolome changes in relation to breast milk composition during the lactation period and evaluate the changes induced by...
Adverse Effects of Metformin From Diabetes to COVID-19, Cancer, Neurodegenerative Diseases, and Aging: Is VDAC1 a Common Target?
Thu, 21 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Metformin has been used for treating diabetes mellitus since the late 1950s. In addition to its antihyperglycemic activity, it was shown to be a potential drug candidate for treating a range of other diseases that include various cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, renal diseases, obesity, inflammation, COVID-19 in diabetic patients, and aging. In this review, we focus on the important aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in energy metabolism...
Gut-microbiota-microglia-brain interactions in Alzheimer's disease: knowledge-based, multi-dimensional characterization
Thu, 21 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Our analysis produces a novel framework to offer insights into the mechanistic links between gut microbial metabolites, microglia, and AD, with the overall goal to facilitate disease mechanism understanding, therapeutic target identification, and designing confirmatory experimental studies.
Probiotics as the live microscopic fighters against Helicobacter pylori gastric infections
Thu, 21 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Nevertheless, antagonist activities of probiotics are H. pylori strain-specific. In general, these bacteria can be used for therapeutic purposes such as adjuvant therapy, drug-delivery system, as well as enhancing immune system against H. pylori infection.
Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of response of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to methyl viologen
Wed, 20 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The toxicity of methyl viologen (MV) to organisms is mainly due to the oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species produced from cell response. This study mainly investigated the response of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to MV by combining transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Through transcriptome sequencing, we found many genes responding to MV stress, and analyzed them by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Meanwhile, many metabolites were also found by metabolomic...
Sulfated polysaccharides from pacific abalone attenuated DSS-induced acute and chronic ulcerative colitis in mice via regulating intestinal micro-ecology and the NF-κB pathway
Wed, 20 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Due to potential side effects of current drugs in colitis treatment, polysaccharides with anti-inflammatory activities can be considered as alternative molecules for colitis treatment. Sulfated polysaccharide from pacific abalone (AGSP) reduced the level of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and increased the production of short chain fatty acids in the colon of mice, and it reduced the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and increased the IL-10 level in in vitro cell...
The K18-hACE2 Transgenic Mouse Model Recapitulates Non-Severe and Severe COVID-19 in Response to Infectious Dose of SARS-CoV-2 Virus
Wed, 20 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
A comprehensive analysis and characterization of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection model that mimics non-severe and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans is warranted for understating the virus and developing preventive and therapeutic agents. Here, we characterized the K18-hACE2 mouse model expressing human (h)ACE2 in mice, controlled by the human keratin 18 (K18) promoter, in the epithelia, including airway epithelial cells where SARS-CoV-2...
Fucoidan Protects Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Modulates Gut Microbiota in Institute of Cancer Research Mice
Wed, 20 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Fucoidan possesses various biological activities, such as anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, potential antioxidant, and others. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on high-fat diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and gut microbiota in Institute of Cancer Research mice. Mice were gavaged with 50 mg/(kg·d) (Fuc0.5 group) or 250 mg/(kg·d) (Fuc2.5 group) of fucoidan for 5 weeks. Fucoidan alleviated obesity and tissue damage by decreasing body weight and body mass...
Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium longum alleviate colitis and cognitive impairment in mice by regulating IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 expression ratios
Wed, 20 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Gut lactobacilli and bifidobacteria on the immune homeostasis. Therefore, to understand the mechanism in vivo, we selected human fecal Lactobacillus rhamnosus NK210 and Bifidobacterium longum NK219, which strongly suppressed the IFN-γ to IL-10 expression (IIE) ratio in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Thereafter, we examined their effects on the endotoxin, antibiotics, or antitumor drug-stimulated immune imbalance in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide and oral gavage...
Investigation of Fosfomycin Susceptibility in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Enteric Bacteria by Disk Diffusion, Automated System and Agar Dilution Kit
Wed, 20 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Due to the increase of bacteria that develop resistance to classical antibiotics in recent years, fosfomycin has become one of the antibiotics gaining importance again. Fosfomycin exerts its bactericidal effect on many bacteria by binding to a cytoplasmic enzyme, MurA, and inhibiting the enzyme enopurivil transferase, which is involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. Bacteria producing ESBL are common pathogens in nosocomial infections and resistance is frequently encountered in their treatment....
Phylotyping and Determining the Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Cutibacterium acnes Isolated from Patients with Acne Vulgaris
Wed, 20 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Cutibacterium acnes (formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes), obligate anaerobic gram-positive diphtheroid, is a member of normal skin microbiota and frequently isolated from acne lesions and also in various infections as an opportunist pathogen. Within the last decade, distinct phylogroups of C.acnes have been discovered, and specific strains associated with human disease were defined. Increasing resistance to antimicrobials used in the treatment of C.acnes infections has been reported....
Microbiome Clusters Disclose Physiologic Variances in Dairy Cows Challenged by Calving and Lipopolysaccharides
Tue, 19 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Dairy cows respond individually to stressful situations, even under similar feeding and housing conditions. The phenotypic responsiveness might trace back to their microbiome and its interactions with the host. This long-term study investigated the effects of calving, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, and l-carnitine supplementation on fecal bacteria and metabolites, dairy cow milk production, health, energy metabolism, and blood metabolites. Fifty-four multiparous Holstein dairy...
Studies on CYP3A activity during the menstrual cycle as measured by urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol
Tue, 19 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The 6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol ratio (6β-OHC/C) in urine is an endogenous marker of drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). The primary aim of this single center, prospective, non-interventional cohort study, was to investigate the variability of 6β-OHC/C during the menstrual cycle. In addition, possible associations between the CYP3A activity and sex hormones, gut microbiota metabolite trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and microRNA-27b, respectively, were investigated. Serum and urinary...
Induction of the glycolysis product methylglyoxal on trimethylamine lyase synthesis in the intestinal microbiota from mice fed with choline and dietary fiber
Tue, 19 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The present study investigated the induction of the glycolysis product methylglyoxal by trimethylamine (TMA) lyase synthesis in the intestinal microbiota and investigated the intervention mechanism of the effects of dietary fiber on methylglyoxal formation. Intestinal digesta samples, collected from the ceca of mice fed with choline-rich and fiber-supplemented diets, were incubated in an anaerobic environment at 37 °C and pH 7.0 with choline, glycine, and methylglyoxal as inductive factors. The...
A review on protective roles and potential mechanisms of metformin in diabetic patients diagnosed with COVID-19
Tue, 19 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently the leading threat to public health and a huge challenge to the healthcare systems across the globe and caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, and diabetes mellitus are risk factors for severe SARS-CoV-2. Metformin is one of the most commonly used antidiabetic medications that displayed immunomodulatory activity through AMP-activated protein kinase. Metformin has...
Cellular Effects of 2,3-Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates in Gram-Negative Bacteria
Mon, 18 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Organismal adaptations to environmental stimuli are governed by intracellular signaling molecules such as nucleotide second messengers. Recent studies have identified functional roles for the non-canonical 2´,3´-cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (2´,3´-cNMPs) in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In Escherichia coli, 2´,3´-cNMPs are produced by RNase I-catalyzed RNA degradation, and these cyclic nucleotides modulate biofilm formation through unknown mechanisms. The present work dissects cellular...
Food and Microbiota Metabolites Associate with Cognitive Decline in Older Subjects: A twelve-Year Prospective Study
Mon, 18 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: These results provide insight into the early metabolic events that are associated with the later risk to develop cognitive decline within the crosstalk between diet, gut microbiota and the endogenous metabolism, which could help identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic strategies to preserve cognitive health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Integrated Microbiome-Metabolome Analysis Reveals Stage-Dependent Alterations in Bacterial Degradation of Aromatics in Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Mon, 18 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
To avoid potential harm during pupation, the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata lives in two different habitats throughout its developmental excursion, with the larva and adult settling on potato plants and the pupa in soil. Potato plants and agricultural soil contain a specific subset of aromatics. In the present study, we intended to determine whether the stage-specific bacterial flora plays a role in the catabolism of aromatics in L. decemlineata. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and...
Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer: From Gut to Bedside
Mon, 18 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex condition with heterogeneous aetiology, caused by a combination of various environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. The presence of a homeostatic gut microbiota is critical to maintaining host homeostasis and determines the delicate boundary between health and disease. The gut microbiota has been identified as a key environmental player in the pathogenesis of CRC. Perturbations of the gut microbiota structure (loss of equilibrium and homeostasis) are...
Bruceae Fructus Oil Inhibits Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Restraining Autophagy: Dependence on the Gut Microbiota-Mediated Amino Acid Regulation
Mon, 18 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been acknowledged as an aggressive disease with worst prognosis, which requires endeavor to develop novel therapeutic agents. Bruceae fructus oil (BO), a vegetable oil derived from the fruit of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., is an approved marketable drug for the treatment of cancer in China for several decades. Despite that the anti-breast cancer activity of several quassinoids derived from B. javanica has been found, it was the first time that the...
Does biological rhythm transmit from plants to rhizosphere microbes?
Mon, 18 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Plant physiological and metabolic processes are modulated by rhythmic gene expression in a large part. Meanwhile, plants are also regulated by rhizosphere microorganisms, which are fed by root exudates and provide beneficial functions to their plant host. Whether the biorhythms in plants would transfer to the rhizosphere microbial community is still uncertain and their intricate connection remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis circadian clock in shaping the...
Improvement of the performance of anticancer peptides using a drug repositioning pipeline
Sun, 17 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The use of anticancer peptides (ACPs) as an alternative/complementary strategy to conventional chemotherapy treatments has been shown to decrease drug resistance and/or severe side effects. However, the efficacy of the positively-charged ACP is inhibited by elevated levels of negatively-charged cell-surface components which trap the peptides and prevent their contact with the cell membrane. Consequently, this decreases ACP-mediated membrane pore formation and cell lysis. Negatively-charged...
MMP-12 siRNA improves the homeostasis of the small intestine and metabolic dysfunction in high-fat diet feeding-induced obese mice
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The changes of small intestinal homeostasis have been recognized to contribute essentially to the obese development. However, the core small intestinal regulator which mediates over-nutrient impacts on the homeostasis of the small intestines remains elusive. Here, we identify the MMP-12 as such a responsive factor in mouse small intestines. Taking advantages of the nano delivery system, we demonstrate that small intestine-specific MMP-12 knockdown alleviates high-fat diet feeding-induced...
Biological machinery for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation: A review
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous environmental pollutants with widespread and well-recognized health concerns. Amidst more than a hundred known PAHs, 16 are categorized as priority pollutants. Use of widely diverse biological machinery comprising bacteria, fungi, and algae harnessed from contaminated sites has emerged as an ecologically safe and sustainable approach for PAH degradation. The potential of these biological systems has been thoroughly examined to maximize the...
Microbiome associated with the tetrodotoxin-bearing anuran Brachycephalus pitanga
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The genus Brachycephalus includes small species of aposematic anurans known as microendemic, occurring in the mountains of the Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus ephippium, B. nodoterga and B. pernix have been reported to contain the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin in skin and viscera. The biological conservation of several Brachycephalus species is currently threatened by climate change, deforestation, and the pandemic caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite the well-known...
Cutting edges in Clostridioides difficile infections
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Clostridioides difficile is the most common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea and one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired infections. It results in significant morbidity, mortality and economic burden - especially in the context of recurrent infections. After initial antibiotic therapy of a C. difficile infection, recurrence occurs in about 20% of all patients, which increases the risk of further recurrence to about 45%. Traditional therapeutic options for treatment of C....
Comparative Analyses of Phyllosphere Bacterial Communities and Metabolomes in Newly Developed Needles of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. at Four Stages of Stand Growth
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Host-plant-associated bacteria affect the growth, vigor, and nutrient availability of the host plant. However, phyllosphere bacteria have received less research attention and their functions remain elusive, especially in forest ecosystems. In this study, we collected newly developed needles from sapling (age 5 years), juvenile (15 years), mature (25 years), and overmature (35 years) stands of Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook]. We analyzed changes in phyllosphere bacterial...
The Relationship Between the Gut Microbiome-Immune System-Brain Axis and Major Depressive Disorder
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prominent cause of disability worldwide. Current antidepressant drugs produce full remission in only about one-third of MDD patients and there are no biomarkers to guide physicians in selecting the best treatment for individuals. There is an urgency to learn more about the etiology of MDD and to identify new targets that will lead to improved therapy and hopefully aid in predicting and preventing MDD. There has been extensive interest in the roles of the...
How to enter the state of dormancy? A suggestion by Trichoderma atroviride conidia
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
It is generally accepted that conidia, propagules of filamentous fungi, exist in the state of dormancy. This state is defined mostly phenomenologically, e.g., by germination requirements. Its molecular characteristics are scarce and are concentrated on the water or osmolyte content, and/or respiration. However, a question of whether conidia are metabolic or ametabolic forms of life cannot be answered on the basis of available experimental data. In other words, are mature conidia open...
Fatty acid composition and lipid profiles as chemotaxonomic markers of phytopathogenic fungi Puccinia malvacearum and P. glechomatis
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The analysis of the overall fatty acid pattern as well as their distribution in various lipid classes of phytopathogenic fungi Puccinia malvacearum and P. glechomatis are considered as chemotaxonomic biomarkers. Puccinia malvacearum on Alcea rosea and P. glechomatis on Glechoma hederacea collected from plants grown in various localities were analysed to determine their fatty acid composition. Both species synthesised significant amounts of saturated palmitic and stearic acids as well as...
Selenium-enriched Bifidobacterium longum DD98 attenuates irinotecan-induced intestinal and hepatic toxicity in vitro and in vivo
Fri, 15 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a camptothecin chemotherapy drug largely used in treating cancers. However, its strong adverse effects, such as gastrointestinal and hepatic toxicities, tend to reduce the patients' life qualities and to limit the clinical use of CPT-11. The protective roles of selenium (Se) and probiotics against CPT-11-induced toxicity have been widely reported. However, the application of Se-enriched probiotics in the adjuvant therapy of CPT-11 has not been well explored. The purpose of...
Baseline co-medications may alter the anti-tumoural effect of checkpoint inhibitors as well as the risk of immune-related adverse events
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Co-medications must be carefully assessed at the time of ICI initiation and clinicians aware of their possible deleterious effect, notably for PPIs, glucocorticoids, antibiotics and psychotropic drugs.
Effects of oral milk extracellular vesicles on the gut microbiome and serum metabolome in mice
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Milk extracellular vesicles (EVs) are rich in abundant bioactive macromolecules, such as glycoconjugates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, and these vesicles might transmit signals to human consumers. However, it remains to be determined whether milk EVs import new pathogens to humans or are beneficial for human health. Here, C57BL/6 female and male mice were randomly divided into 4 EV dose levels (0, 1.5 × 10⁹ p g^(-1), 1.0 × 10^(10) p g^(-1) and 1.5 × 10^(10) p g^(-1)). Based on the...
Metagenomic profiling reveals dominance of gram-positive bacteria in the gut microbiome shifts associated with immunoglobulin A vasculitis (Henoch-Schonlein Purpura)
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Gram-positive bacteria are the main drivers underlying the gut microbiome shifts of IgAV, which may assist rational management of the disease.
Potential Therapeutic Applications of Pulmonary Surfactant Lipids in the Host Defence Against Respiratory Viral Infections
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Pulmonary surfactant is a complex and highly surface-active material. It covers the alveolar epithelium and consists of 90% lipids and 10% proteins. Pulmonary surfactant lipids together with pulmonary surfactant proteins facilitate breathing by reducing surface tension of the air-water interface within the lungs, thereby preventing alveolar collapse and the mechanical work required to breathe. Moreover, pulmonary surfactant lipids, such as phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol, and...
A Seed-Endophytic Bacillus safensis Strain With Antimicrobial Activity Has Genes for Novel Bacteriocin-Like Antimicrobial Peptides
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Bacteriocins are a highly diverse group of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in a wide range of commensal and probiotic organisms, especially those resident in host microbiomes. Rising antibiotic resistance have fueled renewed research into new drug scaffolds such as antimicrobial peptides for use in therapeutics. In this investigation, we examined mung bean seeds for endophytes possessing activity against human and plant pathogens. We isolated a novel strain of Bacillus safensis,...
Metabolic Influences of Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis on Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic medical disorders characterized by recurrent gastrointestinal inflammation. While the etiology of IBD is still unknown, the pathogenesis of the disease results from perturbations in both gut microbiota and the host immune system. Gut microbiota dysbiosis in IBD is characterized by depleted diversity, reduced abundance of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producers and enriched proinflammatory microbes such as adherent/invasive E. coli and H(2)S...
Unravelling the collateral damage of antibiotics on gut bacteria
Thu, 14 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Antibiotics are used to fight pathogens but also target commensal bacteria, disturbing the composition of gut microbiota and causing dysbiosis and disease¹. Despite this well-known collateral damage, the activity spectrum of different antibiotic classes on gut bacteria remains poorly characterized. Here we characterize further 144 antibiotics from a previous screen of more than 1,000 drugs on 38 representative human gut microbiome species². Antibiotic classes exhibited distinct inhibition...
Multi-omics prediction of oat agronomic and seed nutritional traits across environments and in distantly related populations
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Integration of multi-omics data improved prediction accuracies of oat agronomic and seed nutritional traits in multi-environment trials and distantly related populations in addition to the single-environment prediction. Multi-omics prediction has been shown to be superior to genomic prediction with genome-wide DNA-based genetic markers (G) for predicting phenotypes. However, most of the existing studies were based on historical datasets from one environment; therefore, they were unable to...
Specific contributions of segmental transit times to gut microbiota composition
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
No abstract
A meta-analysis study of the robustness and universality of gut microbiome-metabolome associations
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Combined, our findings provide a better understanding of the link between the microbiome and metabolites and allow researchers to put identified microbially associated metabolites within the context of other studies. Video abstract.
Integration of spatio-temporal variations of surface metabolomes and epibacterial communities highlights the importance of copper stress as a major factor shaping host-microbiota interactions within a Mediterranean seaweed holobiont
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: We showed that associated epibacterial communities were highly specific to the algal host and that the holobiont dynamics varied as a whole. While temperature increase was confirmed to be one of the main parameters associated to Taonia dynamics, the originality of this study was highlighting copper-stress as a major driver of seaweed-epibacterial interactions. In a context of global change, this study brought new insights on the dynamics of a Mediterranean algal holobiont submitted...
Effects of Wine Components in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
With the rising prevalence of Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) worldwide, and the rising cost of treatment with novel biological drugs, there is an increasing interest in various diets and natural foods as a potential way to control/modulate IBD. As recent data indicates that diet can modify the metabolic responses essential for the resolution of inflammation, and as wine compounds have been shown to provide substantial anti-inflammatory effect, in this review we aimed to discuss the current...
In Vitro Multiplication and NMR Fingerprinting of Rare Veronica caucasica M. Bieb
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Micropropagation of rare Veronica caucasica M. Bieb. was achieved by successful in vitro cultivation of mono-nodal segments on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L^(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and then transferring the regenerated plants on hormone free basal MS medium for root development. In vitro multiplicated plants were successively acclimated in a growth chamber and a greenhouse with 92% survival. The number of plastid pigments and the total phenolics content in in vitro cultivated and ex...
Dietary Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha clathrata Attenuates Obesity and Increases the Intestinal Abundance of Butyrate-Producing Bacterium, Eubacterium xylanophilum, in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Previous studies have suggested that polysaccharide from Enteromorpha clathrata (ECP) could be used as a potential prebiotic to treat dysbiosis-associated diseases. However, whether it has any therapeutic effects on obesity has not been investigated. In the present study, we explored the anti-obesity effect of ECP and illustrated that it can significantly reduce the body weight and decrease the serum levels of triacylglycerol and cholesterol in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. As revealed by 16S...
Metabolomics Comparison of Drug-Resistant and Drug-Susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain (Intra- and Extracellular Analysis)
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common human pathogen belonging to the ESKAPE group. The multidrug resistance of bacteria is a considerable problem in treating patients and may lead to increased morbidity and mortality rate. The natural resistance in these organisms is caused by the production of specific enzymes and biofilm formation, while acquired resistance is multifactorial. Precise recognition of potential antibiotic resistance on different molecular levels is essential. Metabolomics tools may...
Complex Positive Effects of SGLT-2 Inhibitor Empagliflozin in the Liver, Kidney and Adipose Tissue of Hereditary Hypertriglyceridemic Rats: Possible Contribution of Attenuation of Cell Senescence and Oxidative Stress
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
(1) Background: empagliflozin, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is an effective antidiabetic agent with strong cardio- and nephroprotective properties. The mechanisms behind its cardio- and nephroprotection are still not fully clarified. (2) Methods: we used male hereditary hypertriglyceridemic (hHTG) rats, a non-obese model of dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction fed standard diet with or without empagliflozin for six weeks to explore the molecular...
Gut Microbiota in Lung Cancer: Where Do We Stand?
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The gut microbiota (GM) is considered to constitute a powerful "organ" capable of influencing the majority of the metabolic, nutritional, physiological, and immunological processes of the human body. To date, five microbial-mediated mechanisms have been revealed that either endorse or inhibit tumorigenesis. Although the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are distant physically, they have common embryonic origin and similarity in structure. The lung microbiota is far less understood, and it...
Tumor Necrosis Factor's Pathway in Crohn's Disease: Potential for Intervention
Wed, 13 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic disorder characterized by full thickness patchy inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and involves defective innate immune responses, microbiome alterations, and dysregulated activation of the acquired component of mucosal immunity. One of the molecular mediators that is involved at different levels in the initiation and progression of intestinal inflammation characteristic of CD is tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The...
Effect of the correlation between gut microbiota and folic acid in first-episode schizophrenia
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Objective: To explore the effects of gut microbiota and the serum level of folicacid on psychiatric symptoms in first-episode, drug-free schizophrenic (SCZ) patients. Methods: A total of 100 first-episode, drug-free SCZ patients (SCZ group) from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and 90 demographically matched healthy individuals (healthy control group) were enrolled. The serum level of folic acid was measured by the electrochemical luminescence method.Positive and Negative...
Impaired beta-oxidation increases vulnerability to Influenza A infection
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection casts a significant burden on society. It has particularly high morbidity and mortality rates in patients suffering from metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to relate metabolic changes with IAV susceptibility using well-characterized, inbred mouse models. We compared the highly susceptible DBA/2J (D2) mouse strain for which IAV infection is lethal with the C57BL/6J (B6) strain, which exhibits a moderate course of disease and survives IAV infection....
In vivo commensal control of Clostridioides difficile virulence
Tue, 12 Oct 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Leveraging systems biology approaches, we illustrate how metabolically distinct species of Clostridia protect against or worsen Clostridioides difficile infection in mice by modulating the pathogen's colonization, growth, and virulence to impact host survival. Gnotobiotic mice colonized with the amino acid fermenter Paraclostridium bifermentans survive infection with reduced disease severity, while mice colonized with the butyrate-producer, Clostridium sardiniense, succumb more rapidly....
Hydrocortisone
Sun, 01 Jan 2006 06:00:00 -0500
Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is a normal component of breastmilk, but it has not been studied in milk after exogenous administration in pharmacologic amounts. Although it is unlikely that dangerous amounts of hydrocortisone would reach the infant, a better studied alternate corticosteroid might be preferred. Maternal use of hydrocortisone as an enema would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. Local maternal injections, such as for tendinitis, would not be expected to...

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