Transcriptome analysis reveals the protective role of fructo-oligosaccharide in colonic mucosal barriers in exercise-induced stressed mice
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Most athletes continually endure mental and physical stress from intense exercise. Fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) can reduce physical exhaustion, but the concrete mechanism behind it still needs further research. In this study, the effect of FOS on colonic mucosal barriers was investigated using an exercise-induced stress mouse model. Except for control individuals, mice were subject to cycles of 2-day exercise (at 20 rpm) interleaved by 5-day rest. The mice experienced a total of 6 days of...
Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenoside Compound K From a Compound K Fermentation Product, CK-30, and From Red Ginseng Extract in Healthy Korean Subjects
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Natural protopanaxadiol ginsenosides exhibit low absorption in the human intestine. However, ginsenoside compound K (CK) with 1 conjugated glucose molecule exhibits favorable absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside CK from a CK fermentation product, CK-30, and from a red ginseng extract. A randomized, open-label, 2-treatment, 2×2 crossover study was conducted. The volunteers were randomly divided into 2 groups. One group received CK-30, and the...
Mycorrhizal symbiosis primes the accumulation of antiherbivore compounds and enhances herbivore mortality in tomato
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Plant association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can increase their ability to overcome multiple stresses, but their impact on plant interactions with herbivorous insects is controversial. Here we show higher mortality of the leaf-chewer Spodoptera exigua when fed on tomato plants colonized by the AMF Funneliformis mosseae, evidencing Mycorrhiza-Induced Resistance (MIR). In search of the underlying mechanisms, an untargeted metabolomic analysis through UPLC-MS was performed. The results...
Publisher Correction: Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) exposures exert a sustained influence on the progression of gut microbiota and metabolome in the first year of life
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
No abstract
Circulating short and medium chain fatty acids are associated with normoalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes of long duration
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
A substantial number of subjects with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) of long duration never develop albuminuria or renal function impairment, yet the underlying protective mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, our study included 308 Joslin Kidney Study subjects who had T1D of long duration (median: 24 years), maintained normal renal function and had either normoalbuminuria or a broad range of albuminuria within the 2 years preceding the metabolomic determinations. Serum samples were subjected to global...
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation from Overweight or Obese Donors in Cachectic Patients with Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Phase II Study
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: FMT from a healthy obese donor prior to first-line chemotherapy did not affect cachexia, but may have improved response and survival in patients with metastatic GEC. These results provide a rational for larger FMT trials.
Investigating of Relation Between Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Intestinal Microbiota
Thu, 22 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the most frequent forms of chronic widespread pain, with a reported prevalence of 3-10% in the adult population. Clinical presentation of the typical pain and the presence of associated somatic and psychological symptoms form the basis of the diagnosis. FMS is associated with nervous system dysfunction and neurotransmitters act as targets of a number of drugs approved for fibromyalgia. However, although the underlying mechanisms in FMS are not yet known...
Evaluation of disease staging and chemotherapeutic response in non-small cell lung cancer from patient tumor-derived metabolomic data
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: This study illustrates a comprehensive evaluation of patient tumor-specific metabolic profiles, with the potential to identify disease stage and predict response to first-line chemotherapy.
Glucose-mediated proliferation of a gut commensal bacterium promotes Plasmodium infection by increasing mosquito midgut pH
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Plant-nectar-derived sugar is the major energy source for mosquitoes, but its influence on vector competence for malaria parasites remains unclear. Here, we show that Plasmodium berghei infection of Anopheles stephensi results in global metabolome changes, with the most significant impact on glucose metabolism. Feeding on glucose or trehalose (the main hemolymph sugars) renders the mosquito more susceptible to Plasmodium infection by alkalizing the mosquito midgut. The glucose/trehalose diets...
Latex Metabolome of Euphorbia Species: Geographical and Inter-Species Variation and its Proposed Role in Plant Defense against Herbivores and Pathogens
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Based on the hypothesis that the variation of the metabolomes of latex is a response to selective pressure and should thus be affected differently from other organs, their variation could provide an insight into the defensive chemical selection of plants. Metabolic profiling was used to compare tissues of three Euphorbia species collected in diverse regions. The metabolic variation of latexes was much more limited than that of other organs. In all the species, the levels of polyisoprenes and...
The pregnane X receptor drives sexually dimorphic hepatic changes in lipid and xenobiotic metabolism in response to gut microbiota in mice
Wed, 21 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify PXR as a hepatic effector of microbiota-derived signals that regulate the host's sexually dimorphic lipid and xenobiotic metabolisms in the liver. Thus, our results reveal a potential new mechanism for unexpected drug-drug or food-drug interactions. Video abstract.
PcALF5 inhibits the proliferation of microbiota by binding to RPS4 and MscL of E. coli
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), most of which are small proteins, are necessary for innate immunity against pathogens. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) with a conserved lipopolysaccharide binding domain (LBD) can bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutralize LPS activity. The antibacterial mechanism of ALF, especially its role in bacteria, needs to be further investigated. In this study, the antibacterial role of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (PcALF5) derived from Procambarus clarkii...
valuation of the sensitivity of bacteriophage preparations to Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the colon microbiota in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The level of sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from children of the first half of life with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) to commercial bacteriophage preparations was assessed. The material was the feces of 67 children of the first half of life with FGID who are breastfed. Culture of K. pneumoniae isolated from faeces of children, amounted to two comparison groups, depending on the age of the patients. The first group included 43 K. pneumoniae strains isolated...
Detection of Campylobacter jejuni from fresh produce: comparison of culture- and PCR-based techniques, and metagenomic approach for analyses of the microbiome before and after enrichment
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
In this study, we compared the efficiency of culture-based methods with or without membrane filtration, real-time PCR and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the detection of Campylobacter in fresh produce. Alfalfa sprouts, clover sprouts, coleslaw, and lettuce salad spiked with Campylobacter jejuni ( C. jejuni ) were enriched in Bolton broth for 48 h and enrichment cultures were either directly inoculated onto modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar or applied on membrane filters placed on...
The purine nucleoside phosphorylase pnp-1 regulates epithelial cell resistance to infection in C. elegans
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Intestinal epithelial cells are subject to attack by a diverse array of microbes, including intracellular as well as extracellular pathogens. While defense in epithelial cells can be triggered by pattern recognition receptor-mediated detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns, there is much to be learned about how they sense infection via perturbations of host physiology, which often occur during infection. A recently described host defense response in the nematode C. elegans called the...
Sinonasal and gastrointestinal bacterial composition and abundance are stable after 1 week of once-daily oral antibiotic treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Antibiotic prescription for CRS should be further investigated because of preliminary evidence of poor sinonasal drug penetration, unproven efficacy, and the potential impact of dysbiosis in the sinuses and off-target sites. Further studies should consider distinguishing the presence of DNA from viable and nonviable bacteria.
Penetration of echinocandins into wound secretion of critically ill patients
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Echinocandin penetration into WS displays a high inter-individual variability. In WS of some of the patients, concentrations may be sub-therapeutic. However, the relevance of sub-therapeutic concentrations is unknown as no correlation has been established between concentration data and clinical outcome. Nevertheless, in the absence of clinical outcome studies, our data do not support the use of echinocandins at standard doses for the treatment of fungal wound infections, but...
Translational model of melphalan-induced gut toxicity reveals drug-host-microbe interactions that drive tissue injury and fever
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: We developed a novel translational model of melphalan-induced toxicity, which has excellent homology with the well-known clinical features of HDM transplantation. Application of this model will accelerate fundamental and translational study of melphalan-induced toxicity, with the clinical parallels of this model ensuring a greater likelihood of clinical success.
Bioactivity Ingredients of Chaenomeles speciosa against Microbes: Characterization by LC-MS and Activity Evaluation
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai is a dual-purpose Chinese herbal medicine and functional food favored by minorities in Southwest China, and its fruits are used for the treatment of dyspepsia, dysentery, enteritis, and rheumatism inflammation. Some diseases may be related to microbial infection; however, it is not known how the fruits possess antimicrobial activity. We evaluated the antimicrobial bioctivity of different evaluation extracts of C. speciosa fruits by in vitro and in vivo with...
Inflammation-driven brain and gut barrier dysfunction in stress and mood disorders
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Regulation of emotions is generally associated exclusively with the brain. However, there is evidence that peripheral systems are also involved in mood, stress vulnerability vs resilience and emotion-related memory encoding. Prevalence of stress and mood disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder is increasing in our modern societies. Unfortunately, 30-50% of individuals respond poorly to currently available treatments highlighting the need to further...
Unravelling physiological signatures of tomato bacterial wilt and xylem metabolites exploited by Ralstonia solanacearum
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum uses plant resources to intensely proliferate in xylem vessels and provoke plant wilting. We combined automatic phenotyping and tissue/xylem quantitative metabolomics of infected tomato plants to decipher the dynamics of bacterial wilt. Daily acquisition of physiological parameters such as transpiration and growth were performed. Measurements allowed us to identify a tipping point in bacterial wilt dynamics. At this tipping point, the reached bacterial...
Pharmaceutical design of a delivery system for the bacteriocin lacticin 3147
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Lacticin 3147 is a dual-acting two-peptide bacteriocin which is generally active against Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria such as Closteroides difficile in the colon. L. monocytogenes infections can cause life-long effects in the elderly and vulnerable and can cause severe complications in pregnant women. C. difficile causes one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and can be fatal in vulnerable groups such as the...
The cocaine and oxycodone biobanks, two repositories from genetically diverse and behaviorally characterized rats for the study of addiction
Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Substance use disorders are pervasive in our society and have substantial personal and socio-economical costs. A critical hurdle in identifying biomarkers and novel targets for medication development is the lack of resources for obtaining biological samples with a detailed behavioral characterization of substance use disorder. Moreover, it is nearly impossible to find longitudinal samples. As part of two ongoing large-scale behavioral genetic studies in heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, we have...
Investigation of the therapeutic effect of Yinchen Wuling Powder on CCl(4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats by (1)H NMR and MS-based metabolomics analysis
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is a typical consequence of various chronic liver diseases, and there is still no ideal drug for its treatment. Yinchen Wuling Powder (YCWLP), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is effective for the treatment of icteric hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and other liver diseases in clinical practices, however, the underlying mechanisms of YCWLP on HF is still unclear. In this study, ¹H NMR and MS-based metabolomics analysis along...
Data sharing in PredRet for accurate prediction of retention time: Application to plant food bioactive compounds
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Prediction of retention times (RTs) is increasingly considered in untargeted metabolomics to complement MS/MS matching for annotation of unidentified peaks. We tested the performance of PredRet (http://predret.org/) to predict RTs for plant food bioactive metabolites in a data sharing initiative containing entry sets of 29-103 compounds (totalling 467 compounds, >30 families) across 24 chromatographic systems (CSs). Between 27 and 667 predictions were obtained with a median prediction error of...
Metformin, the gut microbiome and neurogenesis: Lessons learned in rebirth of an old drug
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
No abstract
The role of the human gut microbiota in colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
About 100 years ago, the first antibiotic drug was introduced into health care. Since then, antibiotics have made an outstanding impact on human medicine. However, our society increasingly suffers from collateral damage exerted by these highly effective drugs. The rise of resistant pathogen strains, combined with a reduction of microbiota diversity upon antibiotic treatment, has become a significant obstacle in the fight against invasive infections worldwide.Alternative and complementary...
Global Metabolomics Reveals That Vibrio natriegens Enhances the Growth and Paramylon Synthesis of Euglena gracilis
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The microalga Euglena gracilis is utilized in the food, medicinal, and supplement industries. However, its mass production is currently limited by its low production efficiency and high risk of microbial contamination. In this study, physiological and biochemical parameters of E. gracilis co-cultivated with the bacteria Vibrio natriegens were investigated. A previous study reports the benefits of E. gracilis and V. natriegens co-cultivation; however, no bacterium growth and molecular mechanisms...
Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharides Inhibited Colonic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice via Foxp3+ T Cells, Gut Microbiota, and Bacterial Metabolites
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Tremella fuciformis is an edible medicinal mushroom, and its polysaccharide components are found to confer various health benefits. This study identified the protective effects of polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis (TPs) against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. High dose of TPs (HTPs) could prevent the colon from shortening, reduce activity of colonic myeloperoxidase and serum diamine oxidase (DAO), decrease the concentration of D-lactate, and alleviate the colonic...
Epigallocatechin Gallate Can Protect Mice From Acute Stress Induced by LPS While Stabilizing Gut Microbes and Serum Metabolites Levels
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has potent biological activity as well as strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aims to explore the protective effect of EGCG on LPS-induced acute injury. We randomly divided 18 mice into three groups: CON, LPS, and EGCG-LPS. We gave the EGCG-LPS group gavage treatment with EGCG on day 8-15 and an intraperitoneal injection of LPS on day 16 to induce acute injury. The results showed that, compared with the LPS group, the bodyweight of the...
Targeted Drug Therapies for Bladder Microbiota: Myth or Future of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment?
Mon, 19 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Null.
Human Gut Bacterial beta-Glucuronidase Inhibition: An Emerging Approach to Manage Drug Therapy
Sun, 18 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Bacterial β-glucuronidase enzymes (BGUSs) are at the interface of host-microbial metabolic symbiosis, playing an important role in health and disease as well as medication outcomes (efficacy or toxicity) by deconjugating a large number of endogenous and exogenous glucuronides. In recent years, BGUSs inhibition has emerged as a new approach to manage diseases and medication therapy and attracted an increasing research interest. However, a growing body of evidence underlines great genetic...
Drug Discovery Inspired from Nuclear Receptor Sensing of Microbial Signals
Sun, 18 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Host-microbiota interactions are vital for diverse pathophysiological events and may be targeted for innovative therapeutics. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are versatile host sensors of microbial signals that coordinate diverse environmental cues with local and remote adaptions. Harnessing NR-mediated sensory machinery could provide an alternative lynchpin for gut microbiota-oriented drug discovery strategy.
Lactobacillus casei alleviated the abnormal increase of cholestasis-related liver indices during tuberculosis treatment: a post hoc analysis of randomized controlled trial
Sat, 17 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: L. casei supplementation is beneficial for suppressing abnormally elevated cholestasis-related liver indices during tuberculosis treatment, which may be related to its modification on blood lipopolysaccharide, intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Berberine attenuates choline-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide production via manipulating the gut microbiome
Sat, 17 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a derivative from the gut microbiota metabolite trimethylamine (TMA), has been identified to be an independent risk factor for promoting atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that berberine (BBR) could be used to treat obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis, however, its mechanism is not clear mainly because of its poor oral bioavailability. Here, we show that BBR attenuated TMA/TMAO production in the C57BL/6J and ApoE KO mice fed with choline-supplemented chow diet,...
Biologics and Novel Therapies for Food Allergy
Sat, 17 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Food allergy is a significant public health burden affecting around 10% of adults and 8% of children. Although the first peanut oral immunotherapy product received Food and Drug Administration approval in 2020, there is still an unmet need for more effective therapeutic options that minimize the risk of anaphylaxis, nutritional deficiencies, and patient's quality of life. Biologics are promising modalities, as they may improve compliance, target multiple food allergies, and treat other...
The effect of different contraceptive methods on the vaginal microbiome
Sat, 17 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Introduction: Following a historical overview, the effect of different contraceptive methods on vaginal microbiome has been reviewed and summarized.Areas covered: Effects of: combined hormonal contraceptives (oral or vaginal) and of progestin only (injectable and implantable), intrauterine devices/systems (copper- or levonorgestrel-releasing), on vaginal microbiome. In addition, mention is made of vaginal rings releasing antiviral drugs and lactic acid.Expert opinion: The vaginal microbiota (VM)...
Berberine, a potential prebiotic to indirectly promote Akkermansia growth through stimulating gut mucin secretion
Fri, 16 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that BBR is a promising prebiotic for Akkermansia, and it promotes Akkermansia growth via stimulating mucin secretion in colon.
Carotenogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus: New insights and impact on membrane biophysical properties
Fri, 16 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Staphyloxanthin (STX) is a saccharolipid derived from a carotenoid in Staphylococcus aureus involved in oxidative-stress tolerance and antimicrobial peptide resistance. STX influences the biophysical properties of the bacterial membrane and has been associated to the formation of lipid domains in the regulation of methicillin-resistance. In this work, a targeted metabolomics and biophysical characterization study was carried out to investigate the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoids, and their...
Prediagnostic use of estrogen-only therapy is associated with improved colorectal cancer survival in menopausal women: a Swedish population-based cohort study
Fri, 16 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that E-MHT, but not EP-MHT use, might be associated with improved CRC survival, indicating a potential role of estrogens in sex hormone-related cancers. However, association of MHT use with grade of cancer remains unclear.
The link among microbiota, epigenetics, and disease development
Fri, 16 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The microbiome is a community of various microorganisms that inhabit or live on the skin of humans/animals, sharing the body space with their hosts. It is a sort of complex ecosystem of trillions of commensals, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms, including trillions of bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. The microbiota plays a role in the health and disease status of the host. Their number, species dominance, and viability are dynamic. Their long-term disturbance is usually...
Probiotics for Parkinson's disease: Current evidence and future directions
Fri, 16 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The gut-brain axis is a hot topic in Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been postulated that gut pathogens and dysbiosis can contribute to peripheral inflammatory states or trigger downstream metabolic effects that exacerbate the neurodegenerative process in PD. Several preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated disrupted intestinal permeability, intestinal inflammation, altered gut microbiome, and reduced fecal short-chain fatty acids in PD. In this regard, microbial-directed therapies...
A guide to interrogating immunometabolism
Fri, 16 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The metabolic charts memorized in early biochemistry courses, and then later forgotten, have come back to haunt many immunologists with new recognition of the importance of these pathways. Metabolites and the activity of metabolic pathways drive energy production, macromolecule synthesis, intracellular signalling, post-translational modifications and cell survival. Immunologists who identify a metabolic phenotype in their system are often left wondering where to begin and what does it mean?...
A pilot study of an anti-endotoxin Ig-enriched bovine colostrum to prevent experimental sepsis
Fri, 16 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Despite the dramatic increase in antimicrobial resistance, there is a dearth of antibiotics in development and few pharmaceutical companies working in the field. Further, any new antibiotics are likely to have a short shelf life. Ab-based interventions offer alternatives that are not likely to be circumvented by the widely prevalent antibiotic resistance genes. Bovine colostrum (BC)-the first milk after parturition, rich in nutrients and immune components-promotes gut integrity and modulates the...
Hepatocyte-specific deletion of Nlrp6 in mice exacerbates the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Nlrp6 may play a key role in the pathological process of NASH by inhibiting Cd36 and NF-κB pathways. It may be a potential therapeutic target for NASH.
Structural differences of polysaccharides from Astragalus before and after honey processing and their effects on colitis mice
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Honey-processed Astragalus is a dosage form of Radix Astragali processed with honey, which exhibits better efficacy of tonifying Qi than the raw product. Polysaccharides are its main water-soluble active components. This work was designed to study the structural differences of homogeneous honey-processed Astragalus polysaccharides (HAPS3a) and Astragalus polysaccharides (APS3a) and their effects on colitis mice. The results showed that HAPS3a (Mw = 2463.5 kDa) and APS3a (Mw = 3373.2 kDa)...
Stable high-density and maternally inherited Wolbachia infections in Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles demeilloni mosquitoes
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Wolbachia, a widespread bacterium that can reduce pathogen transmission in mosquitoes, has recently been reported to be present in Anopheles (An.) species. In wild populations of the An. gambiae complex, the primary vectors of Plasmodium malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, Wolbachia DNA sequences at low density and infection frequencies have been detected. As the majority of studies have used highly sensitive nested PCR as the only method of detection, more robust evidence is required to determine...
Bacterial Extracellular Vesicles and the Gut-Microbiota Brain Axis: Emerging Roles in Communication and Potential as Therapeutics
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs) have emerged as candidate signaling vectors for long-distance interkingdom communication within the gut-microbiota brain axis. Most bacteria release these nanosized vesicles, capable of signaling to the brain via their abundant protein and small RNA cargo, possibly directly via crossing the blood-brain barrier. BEVs have been shown to regulate brain gene expression and induce pathology at most stages of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, and thus...
Potential Role of Methanogens in Microbial Reductive Dechlorination of Organic Chlorinated Pollutants In Situ
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Previous studies often attribute microbial reductive dechlorination to organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) or cometabolic dechlorination bacteria (CORB). Even though methanogenesis frequently occurs during dechlorination of organic chlorinated pollutants (OCPs) in situ, the underestimated effect of methanogens and their interactions with dechlorinators remains unknown. We investigated the association between dechlorination and methanogenesis, as well as the performance of methanogens involved...
Connecting the dots: Targeting the microbiome in drug toxicity
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The gut microbiota has a vast influence on human health and its role in initiating, aggravating, or ameliorating diseases is beginning to emerge. Recently, its contribution to heterogeneous toxicological responses is also gaining attention, especially in drug-induced toxicity. Whether they are orally administered or not, drugs may interact with the gut microbiota directly or indirectly, which leads to altered toxicity. Present studies focus more on the unidirectional influence of how xenobiotics...
Butyrate Suppresses Glucose Metabolism of Colorectal Cancer Cells via GPR109a-AKT Signaling Pathway and Enhances Chemotherapy
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Glycolysis inhibitors are promising therapeutic drugs for tumor treatment, which target the uniquely elevated glucose metabolism of cancer cells. Butyrate is a critical product of beneficial microbes in the colon, which exerts extraordinary anti-cancer activities. In particular, butyrate shows biased inhibitory effects on the cell growth of cancerous colonocytes, whereas it is the major energy source for normal colonocytes. Besides its roles as the histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor and the...
One Month of Classic Therapeutic Ketogenic Diet Decreases Short Chain Fatty Acids Production in Epileptic Patients
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Ketogenic diet (KD), a high fat and very low carbohydrates diet, is used worldwide for the treatment of drug resistant epilepsy but, due to its composition, it might exert an impact on gut health. Even though data of KD effects on intestinal microbiota changes are recently emerging, its influence on the gut environment has been scarcely addressed so far. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 1 month of KD affects the gut environment in epileptic patients, by analyzing short chain...
Application of machine learning in prediction of Chemotherapy resistant of Ovarian Cancer based on Gut Microbiota
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality among gynecological malignancies, and resistance to chemotherapy drugs is common. We aim to develop a machine learning approach based on gut microbiota to predict the chemotherapy resistance of OC. Methods: The study included patients diagnosed with OC by pathology and treated with platinum and paclitaxel in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between 2017 and 2018. Fecal samples were collected from patients, and 16S rRNA...
Mycobacterial fatty acid catabolism is repressed by FdmR to sustain lipogenesis and virulence
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Host-derived fatty acids are an important carbon source for pathogenic mycobacteria during infection. How mycobacterial cells regulate the catabolism of fatty acids to serve the pathogenicity, however, remains unknown. Here, we identified a TetR-family transcriptional factor, FdmR, as the key regulator of fatty acid catabolism in the pathogen Mycobacterium marinum by combining use of transcriptomics, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, dynamic ^(13)C-based flux analysis,...
Chemical conversion of human epidermal stem cells into intestinal goblet cells for modeling mucus-microbe interaction and therapy
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Intestinal goblet cells secrete mucus layers protecting the intestinal epithelia against injuries. It is challenging to study the interaction of goblet cells, mucus layers, and gut microbiota because of difficulty in producing goblet cells and mucus models. We generate intestinal goblet cells from human epidermal stem cells with two small molecular inhibitors Repsox and CHIR99021 in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 4 at high efficiency (~95%) of...
Assessment of the microbiome during bacteriophage therapy in combination with systemic antibiotics to treat a case of staphylococcal device infection
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Results from our proof-of-principal study supports the use of bacteriophages as a microbiome-sparing approach to treat bacterial infections. Video abstract.
Potential Role of Gut Microbiota in Traditional Chinese Medicine against COVID-19
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads and rages around the world and threatens human life. It is disappointing that there are no specific drugs until now. The combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medication seems to be the current more effective treatment strategy for COVID-19 patients in China. In this review, we mainly discussed the relationship between COVID-19 and gut microbiota (GM), as well as the possible impact of TCM combined with western medication on...
Enzyme-based treatment of skin and soft tissue infections
Thu, 15 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Inflammatory diseases of the skin and soft tissues are an important group of human infections. The most common causes are the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Given the growing resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials, the current research focuses on the search for novel therapeutic options that would be effective against infections refractory to conventional antimicrobials. A promising alternative is the use of enzyme-based antimicrobials (enzybiotics) that...
Dietary spermidine improves cognitive function
Wed, 14 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Decreased cognitive performance is a hallmark of brain aging, but the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic avenues remain poorly understood. Recent studies have revealed health-protective and lifespan-extending effects of dietary spermidine, a natural autophagy-promoting polyamine. Here, we show that dietary spermidine passes the blood-brain barrier in mice and increases hippocampal eIF5A hypusination and mitochondrial function. Spermidine feeding in aged mice affects behavior in...
Evidence of Barrier Deficiency in Rosacea and the Importance of Integrating OTC Skincare Products into Treatment Regimens
Wed, 14 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: The use of OTC products can improve rosacea symptomatology and signs. As adjuncts, these products are recommended before and during prescription therapy and as part of a maintenance regimen. J Drugs Dermatol. 20(4):384-392. doi:10.36849/JDD.5861 THIS ARTICLE HAD BEEN MADE AVAILABLE FREE OF CHARGE. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN TO ACCESS THE FULL fTEXT OF THIS ARTICLE WITHOUT LOGGING IN. NO PURCHASE NECESSARY. PLEASE CONTACT THE PUBLISHER WITH ANY QUESTIONS.
INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA ON THE CLINICAL AND IMMUNO-HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHRONIC GENERALIZED CATARRHAL GINGIVITIS IN CHILDREN
Wed, 14 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Conclusions: So, CGCG is a disease in the etiology of which is one of the leading roles played by microbial factor, namely, the value of the quantitative ratios of certain types of microorganisms of dental plaque compared to the total bacterial mass of plaque. Therefore, it is reasonable to include comprehensive treatment CGCG drugs in children, leading to natural immunostimulation which causes restoration of local immunity in the gum tissue and drugs to restore quantitative and...
Sputum microbiota as a potential diagnostic marker for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
Wed, 14 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The prevalence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains makes disease control more complicated, which is the main cause of death in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Early detection and timely standard treatment are the key to current prevention and control of drug-resistant TB. In recent years, despite the continuous advancement in drug-resistant TB diagnostic technology, the needs for clinical rapid and accurate diagnosis are still not fully met. With the development of sequencing...
Correction for Altamia et al., "Secondary Metabolism in the Gill Microbiota of Shipworms (Teredinidae) as Revealed by Comparison of Metagenomes and Nearly Complete Symbiont Genomes"
Wed, 14 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
No abstract
An Infection-Tolerant Mammalian Reservoir for Several Zoonotic Agents Broadly Counters the Inflammatory Effects of Endotoxin
Wed, 14 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Animals that are competent reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens commonly suffer little morbidity from the infections. To investigate mechanisms of this tolerance of infection, we used single-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as an experimental model of inflammation and compared the responses of two rodents: Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed deermouse and reservoir for the agents of Lyme disease and other zoonoses, and the house mouse Mus musculus Four hours after injection with LPS or saline, blood,...
iNetModels 2.0: an interactive visualization and database of multi-omics data
Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
It is essential to reveal the associations between various omics data for a comprehensive understanding of the altered biological process in human wellness and disease. To date, very few studies have focused on collecting and exhibiting multi-omics associations in a single database. Here, we present iNetModels, an interactive database and visualization platform of Multi-Omics Biological Networks (MOBNs). This platform describes the associations between the clinical chemistry, anthropometric...
In vitro interactions of Alternaria mycotoxins, an emerging class of food contaminants, with the gut microbiota: a bidirectional relationship
Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The human gut microbiota plays an important role in the maintenance of human health. Factors able to modify its composition might predispose the host to the development of pathologies. Among the various xenobiotics introduced through the diet, Alternaria mycotoxins are speculated to represent a threat for human health. However, limited data are currently available about the bidirectional relation between gut microbiota and Alternaria mycotoxins. In the present work, we investigated the in vitro...
Drugs in Focus: Proton Pump Inhibitors
Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are amongst the most commonly prescribed drugs in infants and children with the last decades witnessing a dramatic rise in their utilization. Although PPIs are clearly effective when used appropriately and have been regarded as safe drugs, there is growing evidence regarding their potential adverse effects. Although, largely based on adult data it is clear that many of these are also relevant to pediatrics. PPI use potentially affects gastrointestinal microbiota...
Rumen bacteria and epithelial metabolism contribute to improving N utilization efficiency of calves
Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of urea-N recycling, rumen bacterial community, and rumen epithelial gene expression in nitrogen utilization of calves. Here, 12 Holstein calves were divided into two dietary treatments: a high-protein diet (HP, 173 g/kg), and a low-protein diet (LP, 125 g/kg). Urea-N kinetics was evaluated using urea-^(15)N^(15)N isotope labeling method. Gene expression in rumen epithelium and liver, bacterial diversity, and metabolites in rumen were...
Prognostic value of intratumoral Fusobacterium nucleatum and association with immune-related gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients
Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Changes in the oral microbiome, particularly Fusobacterium nucleatum, are associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). F. nucleatum has been reported to modulate local immunity in cancers. We aimed to assess the association between intratumoral F. nucleatum and clinico-pathological features, relapse, and overall survival (OS) in two independent cohorts of patients with OSCC, and to explore the interplay with immune-related genes. We retrospectively analyzed tissue samples from a first...
The gut microbiota and traditional Chinese medicine: a new clinical frontier on cancer
Tue, 13 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Gut microbiota is a complex microecosystem which is called the second genome of the human body. Herbal medicine can balance tumor-suppressing bacteria and tumor-promoting bacteria and exert its anti-cancer effect by regulating gut microbiota. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a history of thousands of years in prevention and treatment of diseases in China. In recent decades, TCM show an obvious advantage in prolonging the survival time and improving the living quality of patients with...
The lipidome in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Actionable targets
Mon, 12 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent chronic liver disease. Recent technological advances, combined with OMICs experiments and explorations involving different biological samples, have uncovered vital aspects of NAFLD biology. In this review, we summarize recent work by our group and others that expands what is known about the role of lipidome in NAFLD pathogenesis. We discuss how pathway and enrichment analyses were performed by integrating a list of query...
Alterations to the Cardiac Metabolome Induced by Chronic T. cruzi Infection Relate to the Degree of Cardiac Pathology
Mon, 12 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is a Neglected Tropical Disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The pathognomonic findings in symptomatic CCC patients and animal models includes diffuse cardiac fibrosis and inflammation with persistent parasite presence in the heart. This study investigated chemical alterations in different regions of the heart in relation to cardiac pathology indicators to better understand the long-term pathogenesis of this neglected disease. We used data from...
Chemical, microbial, and metabolic analysis of Taisui cultured in honey solution
Mon, 12 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Taisui, a special substance occasionally found in China, can now be artificially cultured. In order to evaluate the safety of an artificially cultured Taisui (acTS) and develop it into fermented, functional food or oral liquid, the macronutrients, trace elements, microbial community, and extracellular metabolites of Taisui have been investigated in this study. Results showed that the concentrations of total carbohydrates, protein, fat, total ash, and moisture of wet acTS were 2.13 g/100 g, 0.13...
A Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial and Mechanistic Studies Using Improved Probiotics to Prevent Oral Mucositis Induced by Concurrent Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Mon, 12 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Earlier evidence has proven that probiotic supplements can reduce concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT)-induced oral mucositis (OM) in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). The incidence of severe OM (grade 3 or higher) was the primary endpoint in this study. We first enrolled 85 patients with locally advanced NPC who were undergoing CCRT. Of them, 77 patients were finally selected and randomized (1:1) to receive either a probiotic cocktail or placebo. To investigate the protective effects and the...
Effects of Dietary Alteration on the Gut Microbiome and Metabolome of the Rescued Bengal Slow Loris
Mon, 12 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Bengal slow lorises (Nycticebus bengalensis) are threatened by illegal trade. Subsequently, numerous wild-born individuals are rescued and transferred to rescue centers. Metabonomic analysis of intestinal microbiomes has increasingly played a vital role in evaluating the effects of dietary alteration on the captive status of endangered non-human primates. A synthetic analysis was done to test the differences in gut microbes and fecal metabolites between two dietary groups of Bengal slow lorises...
Value added immunoregulatory polysaccharides of Hericium erinaceus and their effect on the gut microbiota
Sun, 11 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides (HEPs) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus with 53.36 % total carbohydrates and 32.56 % uronic acid. To examine whether HEPs can alter the diversity and the abundance of gut microbiota, adult mice and middle-aged and old mice were fed with HEPs for 28 days. Based on the result of 16S sequencing of gut microbiota it was found that the relative abundances of Lachnospiraceae and Akkermansiaceae significantly increased, while the relative...
Effects of polyethylene microplastics on the microbiome and metabolism in larval zebrafish
Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Various microplastics (MPs) are found in the environment and organisms. MP residues in organisms can affect health; however, their impacts on metabolism in aquatic organisms remain unclear. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to polyethylene MPs with sizes ranging from 1 to 4 μm at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L for 7 days. Through qPCR technology, the results indicated that zebrafish exposed to polyethylene MPs exhibited significant change in microbes of the phyla...
Fungal mutualisms and pathosystems: life and death in the ambrosia beetle mycangia
Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Ambrosia beetles and their microbial communities, housed in specialized structures termed mycangia, represent one of the oldest and most diverse systems of mutualism and parasitism described thus far. Comprised of core filamentous fungal members, but also including bacteria and yeasts, the mycangia represent a unique adaptation that allows beetles to store and transport their source of nutrition. Although perhaps the most ancient of "farmers," the nature of these interactions remains largely...
Microbial ACBP/DBI-like genes are rare in the human gut microbiome and show no links with obesity
Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Acyl coenzyme A (CoA) binding protein (ACBP), also called diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is a phylogenetically conserved protein that is expressed by all eukaryotic species as well as by some bacteria. Since elevated ACBP/DBI levels play a major role in the inhibition of autophagy, increase in appetite and lipoanabolism that accompany obesity, we wondered whether ACBP/DBI produced by the human microbiome might affect host weight. We found that the genomes of bacterial commensals rarely contain...
Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles and mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni using a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach
Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Rapid identification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and mechanisms is critical for clinical management and drug development. However, the current AMR detection approaches take up to 48 h to obtain a result. Here we demonstrate a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach to rapidly determine the AMR profile of Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. C. jejuni isolates with susceptible and resistant traits to ampicillin and tetracycline were...
Large-scale plasma-metabolome analysis identifies potential biomarkers of psoriasis and its clinical subtypes
Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Our large-scale metabolome analysis highlights novel characteristics of plasma metabolites in psoriasis and the differences between PsA and PsC, which could be used as potential biomarkers of psoriasis and its clinical subtypes. These findings contribute to our understanding of psoriasis pathophysiology.
A synthetic 5,3-cross-link in the cell wall of rod-shaped Gram-positive bacteria
Sat, 10 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Gram-positive bacteria assemble a multilayered cell wall that provides tensile strength to the cell. The cell wall is composed of glycan strands cross-linked by nonribosomally synthesized peptide stems. Herein, we modify the peptide stems of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis with noncanonical electrophilic d-amino acids, which when in proximity to adjacent stem peptides form novel covalent 5,3-cross-links. Approximately 20% of canonical cell-wall cross-links can be replaced with...
Metabolomic analysis of antimicrobial mechanism of polysaccharides from Sparassis crispa based on HPLC-Q-TOF/MS
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Abuse of antibiotics makes antibiotic-resistance become a huge challenge in bacterial infection treatment. The discovery of new antibiotics is of great significance to human health. In this study, the antibacterial mechanism of Sparassis crispa polysaccharides (SCPs) was explored. The SCPs isolated from Sparassis crispa was composed of fucose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 0.043 : 0.652: 0.305. Bacteriostatic tests showed SCPs inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus better...
Genome Scale-Differential Flux Analysis reveals deregulation of lung cell metabolism on SARS-CoV-2 infection
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented threat to the whole world. In this regard, it is absolutely imperative to understand the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming of host human cells by SARS-CoV-2. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations would aid in design of better therapeutics to deal with COVID-19 pandemic. We developed an integrated genome-scale metabolic model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) infected with SARS-CoV-2 using gene-expression and...
Presence of Colistin- and Tigecycline-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST29 in Municipal Wastewater Influents in Japan
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of colistin- and/or tigecycline-resistant Klebsiella spp. in influents from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which partly reflect the gut microbiome of human populations. Colistin- and tigecycline-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (K30/ST29) were detected four times from the WWTP A during a period of 3 months. Disruptions of the mgrB and ramR genes by ISEc68 and ISKpn21, respectively, were identified in those four isolates....
Synergy of the Polymyxin-Chloramphenicol Combination against New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Predominately Driven by Chloramphenicol
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has been classified as an Urgent Threat by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The combination of two "old" antibiotics, polymyxin and chloramphenicol, displays synergistic killing against New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing K. pneumoniae. However, the mechanism(s) underpinning their synergistic killing are not well studied. We employed an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to mimic the pharmacokinetics of the...
Fecal microbiota transplantation: Uses, questions, and ethics
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has rapidly grown in notoriety and popularity worldwide as a treatment for both recurrent and refractory C. difficile infection (CDI), as well as for a myriad of other indications, with varying levels of evidence to justify its use. At present, FMT use in the U.S. has not received marketing approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but is permitted under "enforcement discretion" for CDI not responding to standard therapy. Meanwhile, the...
Global research trends in the microbiome related to irritable bowel syndrome: A bibliometric and visualized study
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to evaluate and quantify global research productivity pertaining to the microbiome in IBS. The number of publications regarding the gut microbiota in IBS has continuously grown since 2013. This finding suggests that the future outlook for interventions targeting the gut microbiota in IBS remains promising.
Advances and opportunities in malaria population genomics
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Almost 20 years have passed since the first reference genome assemblies were published for Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, and Anopheles gambiae, the most important mosquito vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference genomes now exist for all human malaria parasites and nearly half of the ~40 important vectors around the world. As a foundation for genetic diversity studies, these reference genomes have helped advance our understanding of basic disease biology and...
Cyclic di-AMP Oversight of Counter-Ion Osmolyte Pools Impacts Intrinsic Cefuroxime Resistance in Lactococcus lactis
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
The broadly conserved cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a conditionally essential bacterial second messenger. The pool of c-di-AMP is fine-tuned through diadenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities, and direct binding of c-di-AMP to proteins and riboswitches allows the regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular processes. c-di-AMP has a significant impact on intrinsic β-lactam antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacteria; however, the reason for this is currently unclear. In this work,...
Mechanisms of human drug-induced anaphylaxis
Fri, 09 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Drug-induced anaphylaxis is a hyperacute reaction affecting multiple organs that can be of fatal consequence. Its incidence is increasing, consistent with a global increased sensitization to various allergens and drugs in the population. Few risk factors and mechanisms have been identified from human studies due to the rarity of anaphylactic events and their unpredictability. This systemic reaction is caused by the rapid release of a large range of functionally diverse mediators, including...
Vaginal metabolic profiles during pregnancy: Changes between first and second trimester
Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
During pregnancy, the vaginal microbiome plays an important role in both maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Throughout pregnancy, the vaginal microbial composition undergoes significant changes, including a decrease in overall diversity and enrichment with Lactobacillus spp. In turn, the modifications in the microbial profiles are associated with shifts in the composition of vaginal metabolites. In this study, we characterized the vaginal metabolic profiles throughout pregnancy at two...
Molecular subgroup of periodontitis revealed by integrated analysis of the microbiome and metabolome in a cross-sectional observational study
Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Background: Periodontitis (PT) is a multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease that can have heterogeneous clinical presentations. The oral microbiome and its metabolites have been implicated as the causes and regulators of PT pathogenesis. In this study, we assessed the oral microbiome and its metabolome in PT patients to clarify the interactions between the microbiome and its metabolites.Methods: A total of 112 subjects were recruited. Buccal and supragingival samples were collected for...
An Integrative Approach for the Characterization of Plant-Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. Strains Based on Metabolomic, Bioactivity, and Phylogenetic Analysis
Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Actinomycetes are generally recognized as a diverse group of gram-positive, mycelium-forming, soil bacteria that play an important role in mineralization processes and plant health, being Streptomyces the most well-known genus from this group. Although plant pathogenicity is a rare attribute in this genus, some species have significant impact worldwide due to their ability to cause important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). In this work, an integrative approach was applied to...
Microbiota-associated risk factors for asymptomatic gut colonisation with multi-drug-resistant organisms in a Dutch nursing home
Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in colonisation resistance against MDROs in the elderly living in a nursing home setting. Dorea, Atopobiaceae and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group may be associated with protection against MDRO colonisation. Furthermore, we report a uniquely high abundance of several Bifidobacterium species in multiple residents and excluded the possibility that this was due to probiotic supplementation.
Short-chain fatty acids and intestinal inflammation in multiple sclerosis: modulation of female susceptibility by microbial products?
Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of MS patients, we found no evidence of an active intestinal inflammation. Yet, the vast majority of the investigated MS patients was under immunotherapy which might have affected the outcome measures. The sex-associated difference in fecal SCFA concentrations might at least partially explain female predominance in MS. Large-scale longitudinal studies including drug-naïve MS patients are required to determine the role of SCFAs in MS and to distinguish between...
Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Is It Safe?
Thu, 08 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an accepted procedure for the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. FMT is generally considered safe and well-tolerated - even in high-risk patients. Most short-term risks are mild and known to be associated with delivery methods. Long-term side effects have not been established, and no signs of harm have been found to date. However, causality for several microbiome-associated diseases has to be established. Even though FMT is...
Fascin inhibitor increases intratumoral dendritic cell activation and anti-cancer immunity
Wed, 07 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Fascin protein is the main actin-bundling protein in filopodia and invadopodia, which are critical for tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Small-molecule fascin inhibitors block tumor invasion and metastasis and increase the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice. Here, we report a finding that fascin blockade additionally reinvigorates anti-tumor immune response in syngeneic mouse models of various cancers. Fascin protein levels are increased in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs)...
Robust and Comprehensive Targeted Metabolomics Method for Quantification of 50 Different Primary, Secondary, and Sulfated Bile Acids in Multiple Biological Species (Human, Monkey, Rabbit, Dog, and Rat) and Matrices (Plasma and Urine) Using Liquid Chromatography High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Analysis
Wed, 07 Apr 2021 06:00:00 -0400
Bile acids (BAs) are biomolecules synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and are constituents of bile. The in-vivo BA pool includes more than 50 known diverse BAs which are unconjugated, amino acid conjugated, sulfated, and glucuronidated metabolites. Hemostasis of bile acids is known to be highly regulated and an interplay between liver metabolism, gut microbiome function, intestinal absorption, and enterohepatic recirculation. Interruption of BA homeostasis has been attributed to several...
Cladribine
Sun, 01 Jan 2006 06:00:00 -0500
Data in one patient indicates that the drug is rapidly eliminated over 24 hours and undetectable at 48 hours after a dose. It is suggested that breastfeeding be withheld for at least 48 hours after a dose of cladribine and perhaps up to a week,[1,2] although the manufacturer recommends a 10-day abstinence period. Chemotherapy may adversely affect the normal microbiome and chemical makeup of breastmilk.[3] Women who receive chemotherapy during pregnancy are more likely to have difficulty nursing...

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