Modulation of allergic contact dermatitis via gut microbiota modified by diet, vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, and antibiotics
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most common recorded occupational diseases. There are many different substances that the skin comes into contact with on a daily basis and that can cause ACD, e.g., preservatives, surfactants, and antimicrobial agents. The development of a mouse model of ACD has provided insight into the immune mechanisms involved. Drugs used in the treatment of skin diseases have many side effects. Therefore, alternative methods of suppressing the immune response to...
Impact of preservatives in topicals on the cutaneous microbiota
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Preservatives are used to stabilize topical preparations and protect the user from the influence of pathogenic microbes. After the application of a topical preparation, the matrix undergoes a metamorphosis, and by proportional evaporation of the hydrophilic phase the preservative may accumulate on the skin surface. This is believed to lead to antiseptic effects and may influence the diversity of the cutaneous microbiota. The regulation of the cutaneous microbiome and the associated influencing...
Yeasts originating from fermented foods, their potential as probiotics and therapeutic implication for human health and disease
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Yeasts derived from fermented foods have historically been known for their organoleptic properties, enriching nutritional values, and producing bioactive metabolites with therapeutic potential. In this review, we discuss the yeast flora in fermented foods, their functional aspects in fermentation, as well as their probiotic and biotherapeutic properties. These yeasts have numerous physical and biochemical characteristics, such as larger cells as compared to bacteria, a rigid cell wall composed...
Characterizing the Effect of Amylase Inhibitors on Maltodextrin Metabolism by Gut Bacteria Using Fluorescent Glycan Labeling
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Diet-derived polysaccharides are an important carbon source for gut bacteria and shape the human gut microbiome. Acarbose, a compound used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes, is known to inhibit the growth of some bacteria on starches based on its activity as an inhibitor of α-glucosidases and α-amylases. In contrast to acarbose, montbretin A, a new drug candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, has been reported to be more specific for the inhibition of α-amylase, notably human...
Secondary Metabolite Production Potential in a Microbiome of the Freshwater Sponge Spongilla lacustris
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Marine and freshwater sponges harbor diverse communities of bacteria with vast potential to produce secondary metabolites that may play an important role in protecting the host from predators and infections. In this work, we initially used cultivation and metagenomics to investigate the microbial community of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris collected in an Austrian lake. Representatives of 41 bacterial genera were isolated from the sponge sample and classified according to their 16S...
Remodeling of Carbon Metabolism during Sulfoglycolysis in Escherichia coli
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Sulfoquinovose (SQ) is a major metabolite in the global sulfur cycle produced by nearly all photosynthetic organisms. One of the major pathways involved in the catabolism of SQ in bacteria such as Escherichia coli is a variant of the glycolytic Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway termed the sulfoglycolytic EMP (sulfo-EMP) pathway, which leads to the consumption of three of the six carbons of SQ and the excretion of 2,3-dihydroxypropanesulfonate (DHPS). Comparative metabolite profiling of...
Characteristics of the gut microbiome in esports players compared with those in physical education students and professional athletes
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the marked impact of intense exercise training on gut microbial structure and function. Differences in lifestyle and dietary habits between esports players and physical education students appear to not have a major effect on the gut microbiota.
Protection effect of gut microbiota composition and acetate absorption against hypertension-induced damages on the longevity population in Guangxi, China
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: Although long-lived elderly have extremely high systolic blood pressure, their unique gut microbiota composition and efficient acetate absorption in the colon may offset the damages caused by hypertension and maintain healthy homeostasis.
A hnRNPA2B1 agonist effectively inhibits HBV and SARS-CoV-2 omicron in vivo
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemics or pandemics of viral disease, including the devastating COVID-19. Novel effective antivirals with broad-spectrum coverage are urgently needed. Herein, we reported a novel broad-spectrum antiviral compound PAC5. Oral administration of PAC5 eliminated HBV cccDNA and reduced the large antigen load in distinct mouse models of HBV infection. Strikingly, oral administration of PAC5 in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 omicron...
Seaweed polysaccharide relieves hexavalent chromium-induced gut microbial homeostasis
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Heavy metals released in the environment pose a huge threat to soil and water quality, food safety and public health. Additionally, humans and other mammals may also be directly exposed to heavy metals or exposed to heavy metals through the food chain, which seriously threatens the health of animals and humans. Chromium, especially hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)], as a common heavy metal, has been shown to cause serious environmental pollution as well as intestinal damage. Thus, increasing...
Effect of different regions on fermentation profiles, microbial communities, and their metabolomic pathways and properties in Italian ryegrass silage
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
INTRODUCTION: Italian ryegrass is less studied in northern China due to high-quality forage grass has not been fully utilized. Full utilization of high-quality forage grass helps to alleviate the shortage of forage grass in winter and spring season and guarantee stable development of livestock production. Consequently, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of different regions in northern China on the fermentative products, bacterial community compositions, and metabolic pathways and...
Treatment Success Following Standard Antibiotic Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis Is Not Associated With Pretreatment Genital Immune or Microbial Parameters
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment immune and microbial parameters were not predictive of BV treatment success in these clinical cohorts.
Advancements in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a series of diseases, involving excessive lipid deposition in the liver and is often accompanied by obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, abnormal blood pressure, and other metabolic disorders. In order to more accurately reflect its pathogenesis, an international consensus renamed NAFLD in 2020 as metabolic (dysfunction) associated with fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The changes in diet and lifestyle are recognized the non-drug treatment strategies;...
Characterization of the Microbiome and Host's Metabolites of the Lower Respiratory Tract During Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia Identifies Potential Novel Markers
Thu, 02 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: The composition of the LRT microbiome differed between healthy individuals and CAP patients. We propose that some respiratory microbial components and host metabolites are potentially novel diagnostic markers of CAP.
In silico method to maximise the biological potential of understudied metabolomic biomarkers: a study in pre-eclampsia
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
No abstract
"Integrated molecular approaches for fermented food microbiome research"
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Molecular technologies including high-throughput sequencing have expanded our perception of the microbial world. Unprecedented insights into the composition and function of microbial communities has generated large interest, with numerous landmark studies published in recent years relating the important roles of microbiomes and the environment-especially diet and nutrition-in human, animal, and global health. As such, food microbiomes represent an important cross-over between the environment and...
In Vivo Proof of Biological Safety and Physiological Effects of Orally Ingested Water Containing H2-Filled Ultrafine Bubbles (UFBs)
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Owing to their unique physicochemical properties and diverse biological effects, ultrafine bubbles (UFBs) have recently been expected to be utilized for industrial and biological purposes. Thus, this study investigated the biological safety of UFBs in water for living beings in drinking the water with a view to future use in health sciences. In this study, we used H(2)-filled UFBs (NanoGAS^(®)) that can hold hydrogen in the aqueous phase for a long time. Mice were randomly assigned to one of...
Characteristics of key microorganisms and metabolites in irradiated marbled beef
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Insights into changes in microorganisms and metabolites in irradiated marbled beef may help elucidate the beneficial effects of irradiation on prolonging the shelf life of meat. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and Pearson's correlation analyses were conducted to detect key microorganisms, core metabolites, and potential correlation between the microbiome and metabolome in marbling beef. Microbiome analysis showed...
Exploring the potential of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles to inhibit azole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida spp
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The antimicrobial activity and biological efficiency of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) have been widely described and can be modeled through stabilizing and reducing agents, especially if they exhibit biocidal properties, which can enhance bioactivity against pathogens. The selective action of AgNps remains a major concern. In this regard, the use of plant extracts for the green synthesis of nanoparticles offers advantages because it improves the toxicity of Nps for microorganisms and is harmless...
A comprehensive assessment of the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of frequently consumed fermented foods: insights in the management of COVID-19
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
COVID-19, which is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2), is the deadliest outbreak of this millennium. Despite adopting several precautionary strategies and guidelines, COVID-19 has spread rapidly, and the number of cases is still in escalation across the world. The various immune-boosting drugs with severe side effects and the vaccines approved after negotiated clinical trials have been struggling to cope with the emergence of new variants...
Dynamic network modeling of gut microbiota during Alzheimer's disease progression in mice
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The intimate association between the gut microbiota (GM) and the central nervous system points to potential intervention strategies for neurological diseases. Nevertheless, there is currently no theoretical framework for selecting the window period and target bacteria for GM interventions owing to the complexity of the gut microecosystem. In this study, we constructed a complex network-based modeling approach to evaluate the topological features of the GM and infer the window period and...
Ureteral Stents Harbor Complex Biofilms with Rich Microbiome-Metabolite Interactions
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: Ureteral stent biofilms exhibit patterns unique to stent-associated infection and antibiotic exposure during indwelling time. Microbes isolated from stents reconstituted biofilm formation in vitro. This work provides a platform to test novel materials, evaluate new coatings for anti-biofilm properties, and explore commensal strain use for bacterial interference against pathogens.
Bacterial Profile and Fatty Acid Composition of Anatolian Bee Bread Samples by Metataxonomic and Metabolomic Approach
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
This study investigated the bacterial and postbiotic potential of three Anatolian bee bread samples obtained from different regions of Turkey (Marmara, Aegean, and Mediterranean) and offered for human consumption. The families most commonly found in Anatolian bee bread were Lactobacillaceae, Oscillospiraceae, Bacteroidaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Lachnospiraceae. Lactobacillus delbruckeii was highly abundant, but also other beneficial bacteria, known to be next-generation probiotics, were revealed...
Precision periodontal care: from omics discoveries to chairside diagnostics
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The interface of molecular science and technology is guiding the transformation of personalized to precision healthcare. The application of proteomics, genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics is shaping the suitability of biomarkers for disease. Prior validation of such biomarkers in large and diverse patient cohorts helps verify their clinical usability. Incorporation of molecular discoveries into routine clinical practice relies on the development of customized assays and devices that...
Serum Metabolic Profile in Schizophrenia Patients With Antipsychotic-Induced Constipation and Its relationship With Gut Microbiome
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that there were disturbances in distinct metabolic pathways that were associated with AP-induced constipation. In addition, this study presents evidence of a link between alterations in the gut microbiome and host metabolism which provides additional mechanistic insights on AP-induced constipation.
Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses Show Differential Effects of Glucose Availability in Marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
We compared changes induced by the addition of 100 nM and 5 mM glucose on the proteome and metabolome complements in Synechococcus sp. strains WH8102, WH7803, and BL107 and Prochlorococcus sp. strains MED4, SS120, and MIT9313, grown either under standard light conditions or in darkness. Our results suggested that glucose is metabolized by these cyanobacteria, using primarily the oxidative pentoses and Calvin pathways, while no proof was found for the involvement of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway...
The Effects of Drug Addiction and Detoxification on the Human Oral Microbiota
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Drug addiction can powerfully and chronically damage human health. Detoxification contributes to health recovery of the body. It is well established that drug abuse is associated with poor oral health in terms of dental caries and periodontal diseases. We supposed that drug addiction and detoxification might have significant effects on the oral microbiota. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the effects of drug (heroin and methylamphetamine) addiction/detoxification on the oral microbiota based...
Microbial species from multiple maternal body sites shape the developing giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cub gut microbiome
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The gut microbiome of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) plays a vital role involving nutrient acquisition from its specialized bamboo diet. Giant panda cubs harbor significantly different gut microbiota during their growth and development when feeding on milk before switching to bamboo. The fetal gut is sterile, and following birth, mother-to-infant microbial transmission has been implicated as a seeding source for the infant gut microbiota. The details of this transmission in giant...
A Flower-like Brain Targeted Selenium Nanocluster Lowers the Chlorogenic Acid Dose for Ameliorating Cognitive Impairment in APP/PS1 Mice
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Aβ aggregation-related neuroinflammation and imbalance of brain glucose homeostasis play important roles in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is one of the most common dietary polyphenols with neuroprotective effects. However, due to the low bioavailability of CGA, its application dose is usually high in vivo. In our previous study, the spherical selenium nanoparticles act as drug carriers to improve the bioactivity of resveratrol. Here, the...
Gut microbiota-derived ursodeoxycholic acid alleviates low birth weight-induced colonic inflammation by enhancing M2 macrophage polarization
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a causal relationship between LBW-associated intestinal abnormalities and dysbiosis, suggesting that restoring intestinal health and postnatal maldevelopment of LBW infants may be achieved by targeting intestinal microbiota and BA metabolism. Video Abstract.
Gut microbiota-derived metabolites mediate the neuroprotective effect of melatonin in cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation
Wed, 01 Feb 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Sleep loss is a serious global health concern. Consequences include memory deficits and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Our previous research showed that melatonin can effectively improve cognitive impairment and intestinal microbiota disturbances caused by sleep deprivation (SD). The present study further explored the mechanism by which exogenous melatonin prevents SD-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we established fecal microbiota transplantation, Aeromonas colonization and LPS or butyrate...
Host-microbe co-metabolism via MCAD generates circulating metabolites including hippuric acid
Tue, 31 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The human gut microbiota produces dozens of small molecules that circulate in blood, accumulate to comparable levels as pharmaceutical drugs, and influence host physiology. Despite the importance of these metabolites to human health and disease, the origin of most microbially-produced molecules and their fate in the host remains largely unknown. Here, we uncover a host-microbe co-metabolic pathway for generation of hippuric acid, one of the most abundant organic acids in mammalian urine....
FECAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANTATION FOR CLOSTRIDIOIDES DIFFICILE INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PEDIATRIC PATIENTS
Tue, 31 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of FMT for recurrent CDI in this pediatric IC cohort is high and mirrors data for IC adults and immunocompetent children. FMT-related SAEs do occur (9.5%) and highlight the need for careful consideration of risk and benefit.
Patchouli alcohol attenuates the cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease via modulating neuropathology and gut microbiota through suppressing C/EBPβ/AEP pathway
Tue, 31 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: All these findings amply demonstrated that PA could ameliorate the cognitive deficits in TgCRND8 mice via suppressing Aβ plaques deposition, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, neuroinflammation and gut dysbiosis through inhibiting the activation of C/EBPβ/AEP pathway, suggesting that PA is a promising naturally occurring chemical worthy of further development into the pharmaceutical treatment of AD.
The gut microbiome, short chain fatty acids, and related metabolites in cystic fibrosis patients with and without colonic adenomas
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: CF patients have marked disturbances in the gut microbiome, and CF patients with adenomas had notably increased relative abundance of B. fragilis, a pathogen known to promote colon cancer. Reductions in BCFAs but not SCFAs were found in CF. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the role of B. fragilis as well the biological significance of reductions in BCFAs in CF.
Early use of faecal microbiota transplantation for C. difficile infection
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Overview of: Baunwall SMD, Andreasen SE, Hansen MM, et al Faecal microbiota transplantation for first or second Clostridioides difficile infection (EarlyFMT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022;7:1083-91.
Verticillium dahliae Vta3 promotes ELV1 virulence factor gene expression in xylem sap, but tames Mtf1-mediated late stages of fungus-plant interactions and microsclerotia formation
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Verticillium transcription activator of adhesion 3 (Vta3) is required for plant root colonization and pathogenicity of the soil-borne vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae. RNA sequencing identified Vta3-dependent genetic networks required for growth in tomato xylem sap. Vta3 affects the expression of more than 1,000 transcripts, including candidates with predicted functions in virulence and morphogenesis such as Egh16-like virulence factor 1 (Elv1) and Master transcription factor 1 (Mtf1). The...
Assessment of Quality of Life Among Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated with Investigational Oral Microbiome Therapeutic SER-109: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this secondary analysis of a phase 3 clinical trial, SER-109, an investigational microbiome therapeutic was associated with rapid and steady improvement in HRQOL compared with placebo through 8 weeks, an important patient-reported outcome.
Identification of Gut Microbial Lysine and Histidine Degradation and CYP-Dependent Metabolites as Biomarkers of Fatty Liver Disease
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Numerous studies have described specific metabolites as biomarkers of severe liver diseases, but very few have measured gut microbiota (GM)-produced metabolites in fatty liver disease. We aimed at finding GM signatures and metabolite markers in plasma and feces related to high liver fat content. Based on imaging, we divided study participants into low (<5%, LF, n = 25) and high (>5%, HF, n = 39) liver fat groups. Fecal (LF n = 14, HF n = 25) and plasma (LF n = 11, HF n = 7) metabolomes of...
How we treat atopic dermatitis now and how that will change over the next 5 years
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
We live in exciting times in atopic dermatitis therapeutics, with many novel treatments in the clinical trial pipeline. Frustratingly, most of these trials are vehicle- or placebo-controlled, rather than head-to-head comparisons. Network meta-analyses can rank treatments against each other, even for placebo-controlled studies, aiding evidence-based guideline formulation and clinical decision-making. Treatment registries are an important additional vehicle to collect 'real-world' data on the...
The influence of a probiotic/prebiotic supplement on microbial and metabolic parameters of equine cecal fluid or fecal slurry in vitro
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The microbes that reside within the equine hindgut create a complex and dynamic ecosystem. The equine hindgut microbiota is intimately associated with health and, as such, represents an area which can be beneficially modified. Synbiotics, supplements that combine probiotic microorganisms with prebiotic ingredients, are a potential means of influencing the hindgut microbiota to promote health and prevent disease. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of an equine...
Recent trends in the biotechnology of functional non-digestible oligosaccharides with prebiotic potential
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Prebiotics as a part of dietary nutrition can play a crucial role in structuring the composition and metabolic function of intestinal microbiota and can thus help in managing a clinical scenario by preventing diseases and/or improving health. Among the different prebiotics, non-digestible carbohydrates are molecules that selectively enrich a typical class of bacteria with probiotic potential. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the different aspects of prebiotics, such as its...
A diet enriched in omega-3 PUFA and inulin prevents type 1 diabetes by restoring gut barrier integrity and immune homeostasis in NOD mice
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
INTRODUCTION: The integrity of the gut barrier (GB) is fundamental to regulate the crosstalk between the microbiota and the immune system and to prevent inflammation and autoimmunity at the intestinal level but also in organs distal from the gut such as the pancreatic islets. In support to this idea, we recently demonstrated that breakage of GB integrity leads to activation of islet-reactive T cells and triggers autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). In T1D patients as in the NOD mice, the...
Walk on the wild side: SIV infection in African non-human primate hosts-from the field to the laboratory
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
HIV emerged following cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that naturally infect non-human primates (NHPs) from Africa. While HIV replication and CD4^(+) T-cell depletion lead to increased gut permeability, microbial translocation, chronic immune activation, and systemic inflammation, the natural hosts of SIVs generally avoid these deleterious consequences when infected with their species-specific SIVs and do not progress to AIDS despite persistent lifelong high...
Effects of growth stage on the fermentation quality, microbial community, and metabolomic properties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different growth stages (booting period-SYK; initial flowering-SCK; full flowering-SSK) on the fermentation quality, microbial community, metabolic pathways and metabolomic characteristics of Italian ryegrass silage.
Potential factors causing failure of whole plant nettle (Urtica cannabina) silages
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
INTRODUCTION: Nettle is kind of new feed resources and benefit for animal production. However, a few studies observed that quality of nettle silage was poor under naturally fermentation. Consider of microbial activity was the mainly factors for fermentation characteristics of silage.
Integrated analysis of the gut microbiome and metabolome in a mouse model of inflammation-induced colorectal tumors
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and the gut microbiota and metabolites play an important role in its initiation and progression. In this study, we constructed a mouse model of inflammation-induced colorectal tumors, with fixed doses of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS). We found that colorectal tumors only formed in some mice treated with certain concentrations of AOM/DSS (tumor group), whereas other mice did not develop tumors (non-tumor group). 16S rDNA...
Lactic acid bacteria in cow raw milk for cheese production: Which and how many?
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) exert a fundamental activity in cheese production, as starter LAB in curd acidification, or non-starter LAB (NSLAB) during ripening, in particular in flavor formation. NSLAB originate from the farm and dairy environment, becoming natural contaminants of raw milk where they are present in very low concentrations. Afterward, throughout the different cheesemaking processes, they withstand chemical and physical stresses becoming dominant in ripened cheeses. However,...
A Novel Approach Based on Gut Microbiota Analysis and Network Pharmacology to Explain the Mechanisms of Action of Cichorium intybus L. Formula in the Improvement of Hyperuricemic Nephropathy in Rats
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: Our findings on the anti-HN effects of CILF and its mechanism of action, from the viewpoint of systems biology, and elaborated that CILF can alter the diversity and community structure of the gut microbiota in HN, providing new approaches for the prevention and treatment of HN.
Study on mechanism of action of total flavonoids from Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae against alcoholic liver disease based on "gut-liver axis"
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of total flavonoids from Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae (TFC) on preventing alcohol-induced chronic liver injury and regulating gut microbiota in mice. The results showed that oral administration of TFC significantly attenuated alcoholic liver injury in mice. TFC improved lipid accumulation in mice with chronic alcoholic liver injury through activation of the AMPK/PPARα pathway. In addition, TFC maintained the...
Non-targeted metabolomics and microbial analyses of the impact of oat antimicrobial peptides on rats with dextran sulfate sodium-induced enteritis
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
To study the prevention and mechanism of oat antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on enteritis. Oat protein was hydrolyzed by alkaline protease and isolated to obtain oat antimicrobial peptides. Rat enteritis models were constructed using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), and a blank group, a negative control group, a positive control group, and an experimental group (low dose, medium dose, and high dose) were established. Through pathological test, antioxidant test, intestinal microbial and metabolite...
NPOmix: A machine learning classifier to connect mass spectrometry fragmentation data to biosynthetic gene clusters
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Microbial specialized metabolites are an important source of and inspiration for many pharmaceuticals, biotechnological products and play key roles in ecological processes. Untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is an efficient technique to access metabolites from fractions and even environmental crude extracts. Nevertheless, metabolomics is limited in predicting structures or bioactivities for cryptic metabolites. Efficiently linking the...
Microbiome and metabolic features of tissues and feces reveal diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Microbiome and their metabolites are increasingly being recognized for their role in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. Towards revealing new CRC biomarkers, we compared 16S rRNA gene sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolite analyses in 10 CRC (T(CRC)) and normal paired tissues (T(HC)) along with 10 matched fecal samples (F(CRC)) and 10 healthy controls (F(HC)). The highest microbial phyla abundance from T(HC) and T(CRC) were Firmicutes, while the dominant...
Gut microbiota and diet matrix modulate the effects of the flavonoid quercetin on atherosclerosis
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Gut bacterial metabolism of dietary flavonoids results in the production of a variety of phenolic acids, whose contributions to health remain poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementation with the commonly consumed flavonoid quercetin impacted gut microbiome composition and resulted in a significant reduction in atherosclerosis burden in conventionally-raised (ConvR) Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout (KO) mice fed a high- MAC (microbiota-accessible carbohydrates) diet. However, this...
Increase in the Rate of Gut Carriage of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli despite a Reduction in Antibiotic Prescriptions
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Background : Fluoroquinolone use for urinary tract infections has been steadily declining. Gut microbiota is the main reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli but whether the carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli has been changing is unknown. Methods . We determined the frequency of isolation and other characteristics of E. coli nonsuceptible to fluoroquinolones (at ³0.5 mg/L of ciprofloxacin) in 515 and 1605 E. coli -positive fecal samples collected in 2015 and 2021, respectively,...
The QseB response regulator imparts tolerance to positively charged antibiotics by controlling metabolism and minor changes to LPS
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The modification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp . is primarily controlled by the two-component system PmrAB. LPS modification allows bacteria to avoid killing by positively charged antibiotics like polymyxin B. We previously demonstrated that in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), the sensor histidine kinase PmrB also activates a non-cognate transcription factor, QseB, and this activation somehow augments polymyxin B tolerance in UPEC. Here, we demonstrate - for the...
Retroviral infection and commensal bacteria dependently alter the metabolomic profile in a sterile organ
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Both viruses and bacteria produce 'pathogen associated molecular patterns' that may affect microbial pathogenesis and anti-microbial responses. Additionally, bacteria produce metabolites while viruses could change metabolic profiles of the infected cells. Here, we used an unbiased metabolomics approach to profile metabolites in spleens and blood of Murine Leukemia Virus-infected mice monocolonized with Lactobacillus murinus to show that viral infection significantly changes the metabolite...
Oxymatrine ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by rebalancing the homeostasis of gut microbiota and reducing blood-brain barrier disruption
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: OMAT may alleviate the clinical and pathological symptoms of MS by correcting dysbiosis, restoring gut ecological and functional microenvironment, and inhibiting immune cell-mediated inflammation to remodel the brain-gut axis.
Combined microbiome and metabolome analysis of gut microbiota and metabolite interactions in chronic spontaneous urticaria
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that changes in gut microbiota and metabolites may play a role in immune and inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of CSU patients.
Association between probiotic therapy and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: Adjuvant probiotic therapy may reduce the risk of HCC in patients receiving antiviral medication for HBC. However, further clinical research is required to confirm these findings.
Malaria disrupts the rhesus macaque gut microbiome
Mon, 30 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Previous studies have suggested that a relationship exists between severity and transmissibility of malaria and variations in the gut microbiome, yet only limited information exists on the temporal dynamics of the gut microbial community during a malarial infection. Here, using a rhesus macaque model of relapsing malaria, we investigate how malaria affects the gut microbiome. In this study, we performed 16S sequencing on DNA isolated from rectal swabs of rhesus macaques over the course of an...
Metabolite interactions between host and microbiota during health and disease: Which feeds the other?
Sun, 29 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Metabolites produced by the host and microbiota play a crucial role in how human bodies develop and remain healthy. Most of these metabolites are produced by microbiota and hosts in the digestive tract. Metabolites in the gut have important roles in energy metabolism, cellular communication, and host immunity, among other physiological activities. Although numerous host metabolites, such as free fatty acids, amino acids, and vitamins, are found in the intestine, metabolites generated by gut...
The Gut Microbiome, Microbial Metabolites, and Cardiovascular Disease in People Living with HIV
Sat, 28 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To synthesize recent evidence relating the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV (PLWH).
Tailoring and optimization of a honey-based nanoemulgel loaded with an itraconazole-thyme oil nanoemulsion for oral candidiasis
Sat, 28 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The use of essential oil-based nanoemulsions (NEs) has been the subject of extensive research on a variety of conditions affecting the oral cavity. NEs are delivery methods that improve the solubility and distribution of lipid medicines to the intended areas. Because of their antibacterial and antifungal properties, itraconazole and thyme oil-based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (ItZ-ThO-SNEDDS) were created to protect oral health against oral microorganisms. The ItZ-ThO-SNEDDS were...
Beneficial metabolic transformations and prebiotic potential of hemp bran and its alcalase hydrolysate, after colonic fermentation in a gut model
Fri, 27 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Hemp seed bran (HB) is an industrial food byproduct that is generally discarded. Knowledge on the functional capabilities of HB is limited and it is not known the impact of HB on human colon microbiota, where vegetable fibers are metabolized. In this work, we investigated in depth the prebiotic potential of HB and HB protein extract hydrolyzed by alcalase (HBPA) in comparison to fructooligosaccharides (FOS) after human distal colonic fermentation using MICODE (multi-unit in vitro colon gut...
Microbiota-gut-brain axis mechanisms in the complex network of bipolar disorders: potential clinical implications and translational opportunities
Fri, 27 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Bipolar disorders (BD) represent a severe leading disabling mental condition worldwide characterized by episodic and often progressive mood fluctuations with manic and depressive stages. The biological mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of BD remain incompletely understood, but it seems that there is a complex picture of genetic and environmental factors implicated. Nowadays, gut microbiota is in the spotlight of new research related to this kind of psychiatric disorder, as it can be...
Endotoxin content in neonatal formulas, fortification, and lactoferrin products: association with outcomes and guidance on acceptable limits
Fri, 27 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
While endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) can be harmful and contribute to morbidity and mortality with Gram-negative sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants, non-toxic amounts are produced as part of the neonatal microbiome and may be present in enteral nutrition and medications administered. The United States Food and Drug Administration has given guidance for endotoxin concentration limits for intravenous medications and fluids of 5 endotoxin units/kg/hour (120 endotoxin...
Phenotype-specific signatures of systems-level gut microbiome associated with childhood airway allergies
Fri, 27 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: Overall, our integrative analyses reveal several signatures of systems-level gut microbiome in robust associations with fecal metabolites and disease phenotypes, which may be of etiological and diagnostic implications in childhood airway allergies.
Photodynamic therapy treats acne by altering the composition of the skin microbiota
Fri, 27 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: The skin microbial composition changes after PDT treatment. PDT is an effective method for the treatment of severe acne.
Skin microbiota signature distinguishes IBD patients and reflects skin adverse events during anti-TNF therapy
Fri, 27 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where the role of gut but not skin dysbiosis is well recognized. Inhibitors of TNF have been successful in IBD treatment, but up to a quarter of patients suffer from unpredictable skin adverse events (SkAE). For this purpose, we analyzed temporal dynamics of skin microbiota and serum markers of inflammation and epithelial barrier integrity during anti-TNF therapy and SkAE manifestation in IBD...
The application basis of immuno-checkpoint inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in cancer treatment
Fri, 27 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Immuno-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) bring a promising prospect for patients with cancers, which restrains the growth of tumor cells by enhancing anti-tumor activity. Nevertheless, not all patients benefit from the administration of ICIs monotherapy. The partial response or resistance to ICIs is mainly due to the complex and heterogenous tumor microenvironment (TME). The combined therapy is necessary for improving the efficacy of tumor treatment. Chemotherapy is reported not only to kill tumor...
Short-term feeding of defatted bovine colostrum mitigates inflammation in the gut via changes in metabolites and microbiota in a chicken animal model
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: The data suggest that an anti-inflammatory environment in the ileum was more evident in BC than in the other feeding groups and associated with an increased content of statistically definable groups of anti-inflammatory metabolites that appear to functionally link the observed interactions between the host's improved gut health with an observed increase in whole body nutrient use efficiency, beneficial changes in the microbiome and immunometabolism.
Photodriven Chemical Synthesis by Whole-Cell-Based Biohybrid Systems: From System Construction to Mechanism Study
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
By simulating natural photosynthesis, the desirable high-value chemical products and clean fuels can be sustainably generated with solar energy. Whole-cell-based photosensitized biohybrid system, which innovatively couples the excellent light-harvesting capacity of semiconductor materials with the efficient catalytic ability of intracellular biocatalysts, is an appealing interdisciplinary creature to realize photodriven chemical synthesis. In this review, we summarize the constructed...
Mechanistic insight: Linking cardiovascular complications of inflammatory bowel disease
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide despite an aggressive reduction of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Underlying inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increase the risk of developing CVD. A broad understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes between IBD and CVD is required to treat and prevent cardiovascular events in patients with IBD. This review highlights the commonality between IBD and CVD, including...
Modulating the Microbiome for Disease Treatment
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The central role of gut microbiota in the regulation of health and disease has been convincingly demonstrated. Polymicrobial inter-kingdom interactions between bacteria (the bacteriome) and fungal (the mycobiome) communities of the gut have become a prominent focus for development of potential therapeutic approaches. In addition to polymicrobial interactions, the complex gut ecosystem also mediates interactions between host and the microbiota. These interactions are complex and bidirectional,...
Catechins prevent obesity-induced kidney damage by modulating PPARγ/CD36 pathway and gut-kidney axis in rats
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Obesity is an epidemic and a growing public health concern worldwide. It is one of the significant risk factors for developing chronic kidney disease. In the present study, we evaluated the preventive effect of green tea catechins (GTC) against obesity-induced kidney damage and revealed the underlying molecular mechanism of action. Various green tea catechins were quantified in the catechins-rich fraction using HPLC. In vitro, the palmitic and oleic acid-treated NRK-52E cells showed reduced fat...
CsMYC2 is involved in the regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis induced by trypsin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) during storage
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Trypsin has a new activity of scavenging superoxide anion and generating hydrogen peroxide. Trypsin can significantly improve the storage quality of C. sativus. To illustrate the mechanism of trypsin-induced resistance in fruits and vegetables, an integrated analysis of widely targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics was carried out. Transcriptomic results showed that 1068 genes highly related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis gathered in the brown module were obtained by WGCNA. In KEGG analysis,...
Indigenous and commercial isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi display differential effects in Pyrus betulaefolia roots and elicit divergent transcriptomic and metabolomic responses
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that indigenous AMF and commercial AMF isolates elicited different effects in pear plants through divergent responses from gene transcription to metabolite accumulation.
Toward ordered -omics data science: Researchers on the magic of turning metagenomic chaos into image-like patterns
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Wan Xiang Shen, a postdoctoral researcher at National University of Singapore, and Yu Zong Chen, the PI of the Bioinformatics and Drug Design (BIDD) group, have developed an AI pipeline for enhanced deep learning of metagenomic data. Their Patterns paper highlights the advantages of unsupervised data restructuring in microbiome-based disease prediction and biomarker discovery. They talk about their view of data science and the backstory of the article published in Patterns.
Enhanced metagenomic deep learning for disease prediction and consistent signature recognition by restructured microbiome 2D representations
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Metagenomic analysis has been explored for disease diagnosis and biomarker discovery. Low sample sizes, high dimensionality, and sparsity of metagenomic data challenge metagenomic investigations. Here, an unsupervised microbial embedding, grouping, and mapping algorithm (MEGMA) was developed to transform metagenomic data into individualized multichannel microbiome 2D representation by manifold learning and clustering of microbial profiles (e.g., composition, abundance, hierarchy, and taxonomy)....
Preventive effect of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. extract on mice infected with Salmonella Typhimurium
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (TB) is a traditional herbal combination used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of a broad range of diseases. In this study, thirty KM mice were randomly divided into control (N), infection group (NS), and the TB protection group (HS). Based on its digestive feature, intestinal physical barrier, immunological barrier and gut microbiota effects in vivo on challenged with S.typhimurium mice were investigated after oral administration of 600 mg/kg b.wt of TB...
Heptadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid crosstalk with fecal-derived gut microbiota are potential non-invasive biomarkers for chronic atrophic gastritis
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: Therefore, heptadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid, crosstalk with fecal-derived gut microbiota namely Erysipelotrichaceae_UCG-003 and Haemophilus, are potential non-invasive biomarkers for CAG diagnosis.
Advancements in lead therapeutic phytochemicals polycystic ovary syndrome: A review
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases in women of reproductive age and features complex pathological symptoms and mechanisms. Existing medical treatments have, to some extent, alleviated the deterioration of PCOS. However, these strategies only temporarily control symptoms, with a few side effects and no preventive effect. Phytochemicals extracted from medicinal herbs and plants are vital for discovering novel drugs. In recent years, many kinds of research...
Dietary supplement of mushrooms promotes SCFA production and moderately associates with IgA production: A pilot clinical study
Thu, 26 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSION: Consumption of mushrooms significantly increased the intestinal SCFAs and IgA in some subjects. The increase in intestinal IgA levels was more prominent in subjects with higher SCFA levels at baseline. This finding provides evidence that mushroom alters the intestinal environment, but the intensity of the effect still depends on the baseline intestinal environment. This trial was registered at www.umin.ac.jp as UMIN000043979.
The Pga59 cell wall protein is an amyloid forming protein involved in adhesion and biofilm establishment in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans
Wed, 25 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The human commensal fungus Candida albicans can attach to epithelia or indwelling medical devices and form biofilms, that are highly tolerant to antifungal drugs and can evade the immune response. The cell surface protein Pga59 has been shown to influence adhesion and biofilm formation. Here, we present evidence that Pga59 displays amyloid properties. Using electron microscopy, staining with an amyloid fibre-specific dye and X-ray diffraction experiments, we showed that the predicted...
Positive-strand RNA viruses-a Keystone Symposia report
Wed, 25 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Positive-strand RNA viruses have been the cause of several recent outbreaks and epidemics, including the Zika virus epidemic in 2015, the SARS outbreak in 2003, and the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. On June 18-22, 2022, researchers focusing on positive-strand RNA viruses met for the Keystone Symposium "Positive-Strand RNA Viruses" to share the latest research in molecular and cell biology, virology, immunology, vaccinology, and antiviral drug development. This report presents concise summaries of...
Splenic abscess caused by Cutibacterium acnes in a patient with multiple tooth extractions
Wed, 25 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
A woman in her 40s with a history of dental abscess presenting with a 3-month history of nightly fevers, malaise, fatigue and acutely worsening left flank pain was found to have a splenic abscess replacing almost the entire splenic parenchyma on abdominal CT. Abscess aspirate showed Gram-positive rods, and both aerobic and anaerobic cultures grew Cutibacterium acnes (previously Propionibacterium acnes), a common member of the skin microbiome. Prior case reports of C. acnes splenic abscess all...
Effects of microbial-derived biotics (meta/pharma/post-biotics) on the modulation of gut microbiome and metabolome; general aspects and emerging trends
Wed, 25 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Potential effects of metabiotics (probiotics effector molecules or signaling factors), pharmabiotics (pro-functional metabolites produced by gut microbiota (GMB)) and postbiotics (multifunctional metabolites and structural compounds of food-grade microorganisms) on GMB have been rarely reviewed. These multifunctional components have several promising capabilities for prevention, alleviation and treatment of some diseases or disorders. Correlations between these essential biotics and GMB are also...
T-2 toxin-induced intestinal damage with dysregulation of metabolism, redox homeostasis, inflammation, and apoptosis in chicks
Wed, 25 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
T-2 toxin is a worldwide problem for feed and food safety, leading to livestock and human health risks. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanism of T-2 toxin-induced small intestine injury in broilers by integrating the advanced microbiomic, metabolomic and transcriptomic technologies. Four groups of 1-day-old male broilers (n = 4 cages/group, 6 birds/cage) were fed a control diet and control diet supplemented with T-2 toxin at 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks....
Enteropathy and gut dysbiosis as obstacles to achieve immune recovery in undetectable people with HIV: a clinical view of evidence, successes, and projections
Wed, 25 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Immune performance following antiretroviral therapy initiation varies among patients. Despite achieving viral undetectability, a subgroup of patients fails to restore CD4+ T-cell counts during follow-up, which exposes them to non-AIDS defining comorbidities and increased mortality. Unfortunately, its mechanisms are incompletely understood, and no specific treatment is available. In this review, we address some of the pathophysiological aspects of the poor immune response from a translational...
Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic study unveils the gene regulatory mechanisms of sugarcane growth promotion during interaction with an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the gene regulatory mechanisms involved in the interaction between GXS16 and sugarcane roots, which will facilitate future applications of endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria to promote crop growth.
The antidiabetic drug metformin aids bacteria in hijacking vitamin B12 from the environment through RcdA
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Years of use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has long been associated with the risk of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence has shown that metformin may exert beneficial effects by altering the metabolism of the gut microbiota, but whether it induces human B12 deficiency via modulation of bacterial activity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both metformin and the other biguanide drug...
Gut microbiota and microbiota-derived metabolites promotes endometriosis
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Endometriosis is a pathological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by the existence of endometrium-like tissue at ectopic sites, affecting 10% of women between the age 15 and 49 in the USA. However, currently there is no reliable non-invasive method to detect the presence of endometriosis without surgery and many women find hormonal therapy and surgery as ineffective in avoiding the recurrences. There is a lack of knowledge on the etiology and the factors that contribute to...
Celery soluble dietary fiber antagonize flavonoids ameliorative effect on dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced colitis in mice
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed for the first time that CSDF can suppress the protective effect of CF on intestinal health by inhibiting g_Akkermansia, and clarified that the decreased efficacy of celery whole food on colitis was mediated by an antagonism between CSDF and CF. Moreover, this study presents for the first time that interaction between soluble dietary fiber and flavonoids in vivo can ameliorate the efficacy of dietary fiber or flavonoids when administered alone suggestive for an...
Identifying Serum Metabolites and Gut Bacterial Species Associated with Nephrotoxicity Caused by Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Co-contamination of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) is widely distributed in groundwater, which are known risk factors for the nephrotoxicity. Emerging evidence has linked environmentally associated nephrotoxicity with the disturbance of gut microbiota and blood metabolites. In this study, we generated gut microbiota and blood metabolomic profile and identified multiple serum metabolites and gut bacteria species, which were associated with kidney injury on rat model exposed to As and F alone or...
The kidney drug transporter OAT1 regulates gut microbiome-dependent host metabolism
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1/SLC22A6, NKT) is a multispecific drug transporter in the kidney with numerous substrates, including pharmaceuticals, endogenous metabolites, natural products, and uremic toxins. Here, we show that OAT1 regulates levels of gut microbiome-derived metabolites. We depleted the gut microbiome of Oat1-KO and WT mice and performed metabolomics to analyze the effects of genotype (KO versus WT) and microbiome depletion. OAT1 is an in vivo intermediary between the host...
Frizzled-7 modulates Goblet and Paneth cell fate and maintains the homeostasis in intestines
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Intestinal homeostasis depends on the interactions among the intestinal epithelium, the immune system, and the microbiota. Because of these complicated connections, there are many problems that need to be solved. Current research has indicated that the target genes under Wnt signaling are responsible for controlling intestinal stem cell fate and modulating intestinal homeostasis. As our data shown, loss of Frizzled-7 (Fzd7), an important element in the Wnt signaling, interrupted the...
Gut microbiota of skywalker hoolock gibbons (Hoolock tianxing) from different habitats and in captivity: Implications for gibbon health
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
The gut microbiota plays an integral role in the metabolism and immunity of animal hosts, and provides insights into the health and habitat assessment of threatened animals. The skywalker hoolock gibbon (Hoolock tianxing) is a newly described gibbon species, and is considered an endangered species. Here, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to describe the fecal bacterial community of skywalker hoolock gibbons from different habitats and in captivity. Fecal samples (n = 5) from two captive...
Yiyi Fuzi Baijiang Powder Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats via Inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB/NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Pathway to Repair the Intestinal Epithelial Barrier, and Modulating Intestinal Microbiota
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic non-specific inflammatory disease of the intestine, which is prone to recurrence and difficult to cure. Yiyi Fuzi Baijiang powder (YFBP), as a classic Chinese herbal formula, is commonly used in the clinical treatment of UC. However, its potential mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which YFBP exerts a therapeutic effect against UC. Firstly, we used network pharmacology to screen the active ingredients and potential...
Acute appendicitis manifests as two microbiome state types with oral pathogens influencing severity
Tue, 24 Jan 2023 06:00:00 -0500
Mounting evidence suggests that acute appendicitis (AA) is not one but two diseases: complicated appendicitis, which is associated with necrosis leading to perforation or periappendicular abscess, and uncomplicated appendicitis, which does not necessarily result in perforation. Even though AA is the most frequent cause of surgery from abdominal pain, little is known about the origins and etiopathogenesis of this disease, much less regarding the different disease types. In this study, we...

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