Related Effects of Methamphetamine on the Intestinal Barrier via Cytokines, and Potential Mechanisms by Which Methamphetamine May Occur on the Brain-Gut Axis
Fri, 27 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Methamphetamine (METH) is an illegal drug widely abused in many countries. Methamphetamine abuse is a major health and social problem all over the world. However, the effects of METH on the digestive system have rarely been reported. Previous studies and clinical cases have shown that METH use can lead to the impaired intestinal barrier function and severe digestive diseases. METH can cause multiple organ dysfunction, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). The gut microbiota are...
The Airway Microbiome and Metabolome in Preterm Infants: Potential Biomarkers of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Fri, 27 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: Decreased diversity of the airway microbiome, increased abundance of Stenotrophomonas, and increased level of sn-glycerol 3-phosphoethanolamine may have potential as biomarkers for BPD. The occurrence and severity of BPD are closely related to Stenotrophomonas, which may influence the composition of the lower airway microbiome through its metabolite sn-glycerol 3-phosphoethanolamine, and may be the triggering factor of the disease. The causal relationship needs further study.
Comprehensive Review on the Interactions of Clay Minerals With Animal Physiology and Production
Fri, 27 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Clay minerals are naturally occurring rock and soil materials primarily composed of fine-grained aluminosilicate minerals, characterized by high hygroscopicity. In animal production, clays are often mixed with feed and, due to their high binding capacity towards organic molecules, used to limit animal absorption of feed contaminants, such as mycotoxins and other toxicants. Binding capacity of clays is not specific and these minerals can form complexes with different compounds, such as nutrients...
Fusarium fruiting body microbiome member Pantoea agglomerans inhibits fungal pathogenesis by targeting lipid rafts
Thu, 26 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Plant-pathogenic fungi form intimate interactions with their associated bacterial microbiota during their entire life cycle. However, little is known about the structure, functions and interaction mechanisms of bacterial communities associated with fungal fruiting bodies (perithecia). Here we examined the bacterial microbiome of perithecia formed by Fusarium graminearum, the major pathogenic fungus causing Fusarium head blight in cereals. A total of 111 shared bacterial taxa were identified in...
Indoor microbiome, microbial and plant metabolites, chemical compounds and asthma symptoms in junior high school students: a multicentre association study in Malaysia
Thu, 26 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Indoor microbial exposure is associated with asthma, but the health effects of indoor metabolites and chemicals are not comprehensively assessed. Here, we collected classroom dust from 24 junior high schools in three geographically distanced areas in Malaysia, including Johor Bahru, Terengganu, and Penang, and conducted culture-independent high-throughput microbiome and untargeted metabolomics/chemical profilings. 1290 students were surveyed for asthma symptoms (wheeze). In each center, we found...
Butyrate, a postbiotic of intestinal bacteria, affects pancreatic cancer and gemcitabine response in in vitro and in vivo models
Thu, 26 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive cancer. The characteristic excessive stromatogenesis accompanying the growth of this tumor is believed to contribute to chemoresistance which, together with drug toxicity, results in poor clinical outcome. An increasing number of studies are showing that gut microbiota and their metabolites are implicated in cancer pathogenesis, progression and response to therapies. In this study we tested butyrate, a product of dietary fibers' bacterial...
Targeted Metabolomics Using LC-MS in Neurospora crassa
Thu, 26 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has historically been a model for understanding the relationship between genes and metabolism-auxotrophic mutants of N. crassa were used by Beadle and Tatum to develop the one-gene-one-enzyme hypothesis for which they earned the Nobel Prize in 1958. In the ensuing decades, several techniques have been developed for the systematic analysis of metabolites in N. crassa and other fungi. Untargeted and targeted approaches have been used, with a focus on...
Recent Trends of Microbiota-Based Microbial Metabolites Metabolism in Liver Disease
Thu, 26 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The gut microbiome and microbial metabolomic influences on liver diseases and their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are still controversial. Research studies have provocatively claimed that the gut microbiome, metabolomics understanding, and microbial metabolite screening are key approaches to understanding liver cancer and liver diseases. An advance of logical innovations in metabolomics profiling, the metabolome inclusion, challenges, and the reproducibility of the investigations at every...
Oat β Glucan Ameliorates Renal Function and Gut Microbiota in Diabetic Rats
Thu, 26 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Diabetic nephropathy is a severe complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and death. Therefore, we must find effective prevention and treatment approaches to the problem. Oat has a long history of use for its nutritional and medicinal properties, such as maintaining physiological blood glucose levels. Oat β glucan is one of the major bioactive substances produced by oat. However, the protective effects of oat β glucan on diabetic nephropathy are still unclear....
Effects of Chang-Kang-Fang Formula on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Rats With Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Thu, 26 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Chang-Kang-Fang formula (CKF), a multi-herb traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in clinical settings to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent studies show that 5.0 g/kg/d CKF can alleviate the symptoms of IBS rats by modulating the brain-gut axis through the production of brain-gut peptides (BGPs), thus relieving pain, and reversing the effects of intestinal propulsion disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of CKF in IBS remain unclear. The...
Chitin-glucan supplementation improved postprandial metabolism and altered gut microbiota in subjects at cardiometabolic risk in a randomized trial
Wed, 25 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Chitin-glucan (CG), an insoluble dietary fiber, has been shown to improve cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity in mice. Its effects in healthy subjects has recently been studied, revealing its interaction with the gut microbiota. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over, twice 3-week exploratory study, we investigated the impacts of CG on the cardiometabolic profile and gut microbiota composition and functions in 15 subjects at cardiometabolic risk. They consumed as a supplement...
Wei-Tong-Xin ameliorates functional dyspepsia via inactivating TLR4/MyD88 by regulating gut microbial structure and metabolites
Wed, 25 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the chemical profile of WTX was first reported. Based on remodeling the gut microbiota structure and adjusting the levels of metabolites (SCFAs and LPS), WTX inactivated the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway to inhibit the occurrence of gastric antral inflammation, which reversed the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on gastric motility, and improved CIS-induced FD symptoms.
Deficiency of PSRC1 accelerates atherosclerosis by increasing TMAO production via manipulating gut microbiota and flavin monooxygenase 3
Wed, 25 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Maladaptive inflammatory and immune responses are responsible for intestinal barrier integrity and function dysregulation. Proline/serine-rich coiled-coil protein 1 (PSRC1) critically contributes to the immune system, but direct data on the gut microbiota and the microbial metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are lacking. Here, we investigated the impact of PSRC1 deletion on TMAO generation and atherosclerosis. We first found that PSRC1 deletion in apoE^(-/-) mice accelerated atherosclerotic...
Fungi-A Component of the Oral Microbiome Involved in Periodontal Diseases
Wed, 25 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The human oral cavity is a diverse ecological niche favorable for colonization by hundreds of different species of microorganisms. They include not only bacteria but also numerous species of fungi, many of which are able to cause opportunistic infections when the host's immunity is impaired, predominantly by systemic and chronic diseases like diabetes, pulmonary diseases, renal disorders, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Within the dental biofilm and subgingival sites, fungi of the genus...
Anaerobic Hydroxyproline Degradation Involving C-N Cleavage by a Glycyl Radical Enzyme
Wed, 25 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Hydroxyprolines are highly abundant in nature as they are components of many structural proteins and osmolytes. Anaerobic degradation of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (t4L-HP) was previously found to involve the glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) t4L-HP dehydratase (HypD). Here, we report a pathway for anaerobic hydroxyproline degradation that involves a new GRE, trans-4-hydroxy-d-proline (t4D-HP) C-N-lyase (HplG). In this pathway, cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline (c4L-HP) is first isomerized to t4D-HP, followed by...
A Conserved Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Is Regulated by Quorum Sensing in a Shipworm Symbiont
Wed, 25 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Bacterial symbionts often provide critical functions for their hosts. For example, wood-boring bivalves called shipworms rely on cellulolytic endosymbionts for wood digestion. However, how the relationship between shipworms and their bacterial symbionts is formed and maintained remains unknown. Quorum sensing (QS) often plays an important role in regulating symbiotic relationships. We identified and characterized a QS system found in Teredinibacter sp. strain 2052S, a gill isolate of the...
Challenges and innovations in treating chronic and acute wound infections: from basic science to clinical practice
Wed, 25 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Acute and chronic wound infection has become a major worldwide healthcare burden leading to significantly high morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanism of infections has been widely investigated by scientist, while standard wound management is routinely been used in general practice. However, strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of wound infections remain a great challenge due to the occurrence of biofilm colonization, delayed healing and drug resistance. In the present review, we...
Probiotics synergized with conventional regimen in managing Parkinson's disease
Tue, 24 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Parkinson's disease (PD) is mainly managed by pharmacological therapy (e.g., Benserazide and dopamine agonists). However, prolonged use of these drugs would gradually diminish their dopaminergic effect. Gut dysbiosis was observed in some patients with PD, suggesting close association between the gut microbiome and PD. Probiotics modulate the host's gut microbiota beneficially. A 3-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to investigate the beneficial effect...
Predicting cancer prognosis and drug response from the tumor microbiome
Tue, 24 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Tumor gene expression is predictive of patient prognosis in some cancers. However, RNA-seq and whole genome sequencing data contain not only reads from host tumor and normal tissue, but also reads from the tumor microbiome, which can be used to infer the microbial abundances in each tumor. Here, we show that tumor microbial abundances, alone or in combination with tumor gene expression, can predict cancer prognosis and drug response to some extent-microbial abundances are significantly less...
Integration strategy of network pharmacology in Traditional Chinese Medicine: a narrative review
Tue, 24 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been extensively used as a mainstay for treating various pathologies. Combing the pharmacology and systems biology approaches, the network pharmacology (NP) approach was developed to predict the probable mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of TCM. However, approaches solely based on NP cannot effectively elucidate the curative mechanism in a holistic and reliable manner due to limitations in NP-based methods and complexity of TCM components. Thus,...
Correlation between slow transit constipation and spleen deficiency, and gut microbiota: a pilot study
Tue, 24 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: STC mice with spleen deficiency show a decreased abundance of beneficial bacteria, such as , and an increased abundance of the conditional pathogenic bacteria . Furthermore, the mechanism of action of MR in treating STC may involve the regulation of intestinal movement, reduction of intestinal inflammation, elevation of intestinal absorption, and regulation of gut microbiota.
Beneficial effects of celastrol on immune balance by modulating gut microbiota in experimental ulcerative colitis
Tue, 24 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease caused by many factors including colonic inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis. Previous studies have indicated that celastrol (CSR) has strong anti-inflammatory and immune-inhibitory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of CSR on colonic inflammation and the mucosal immunity in an experimental colitis model, and addressed the mechanism by which CSR exerts the protective effects. We characterized the therapeutic effects and...
Time-related multivariate strategy for the comprehensive evaluation of microbial chemical data
Tue, 24 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
INTRODUCTION: In microbial metabolomics, the use of multivariate data analysis (MDVA) has not been comprehensively explored regarding the different techniques available and the information that each gives about the metabolome. To overcome these limitations, here we show the use of Fusarium oxysporum cultured in the presence of exogenous alkaloids as a model system to demonstrate a comprehensive strategy for metabolic profiling.
Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway Therapeutics Associated With Improved Outcomes in Males Hospitalized With COVID-19
Tue, 24 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: ARBs use was associated with less ventilation and vasopressors in males but not females. Sex-based differences in RAS dysregulation may contribute to sex-based differences in outcomes and responses to ARBs in COVID-19.
Fine scale transitions of the microbiota and metabolome along the gastrointestinal tract of herbivorous fishes
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of microbial and untargeted metabolomic data at high spatial resolution provides a new view of the diverse fish gut microenvironment and serves as a foundation to understand functional partitioning of microbial activities that contribute to the digestion of complex macroalgae in herbivorous marine fish.
The NICU Antibiotics and Outcomes (NANO) trial: a randomized multicenter clinical trial assessing empiric antibiotics and clinical outcomes in newborn preterm infants
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
BACKGROUND: Early-onset sepsis is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the preterm population. Infants perceived to be at increased risk for early-onset sepsis are often treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics while awaiting confirmatory blood cultures, despite an overall incidence of early-onset sepsis of 2-3% among extremely-low-birthweight (ELBW) infants. Recent observational studies associate perinatal antibiotic use with an increased incidence of necrotizing...
A crosstalk between gut and brain in sepsis-induced cognitive decline
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Since several pharmacological studies have failed to prevent cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors, a better understanding of the function of glial cells and gut microbiota can provide new avenues for treating sepsis patients.
Elevated testicular apoptosis is associated with elevated sphingosine driven by gut microbiota in prediabetic sheep
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Our results point to a key role of sphingosine in the disruption of spermatogenesis in prediabetic sheep and suggest it could be a useful disease marker; furthermore, melatonin represents a potential prebiotic agent for the treatment of male infertility caused by prediabetes.
Xihuang Pill enhances anticancer effect of anlotinib by regulating gut microbiota composition and tumor angiogenesis pathway
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Lung cancer poses a serious threat to human health. Although targeted therapies have led to breakthroughs in the treatment of lung cancer, drug resistance and side effects limit their clinical applications. Xihuang pill (XHW), a classical anti-cancer traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been clinically proven to be an effective complementary therapy in the treatment of various of cancers. However, the underlying mechanism for its use in combination with anti-cancer drugs remains unclear....
Delineating the Bacteriome of Packaged and Loose Smokeless Tobacco Products Available in North India
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Smokeless tobacco product (STP) consumption is a significant public health threat across the globe. STPs are not only a storehouse of carcinogens and toxicants but also harbor microbes that aid in the conversion of tobacco alkaloids to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), thereby posing a further threat to the health of its consumers. The present study analyzed the bacterial diversity of popular dry and loose STPs by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This NGS-based investigation revealed...
Bacterial Adaptation to Venom in Snakes and Arachnida
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Animal venoms are considered sterile sources of antimicrobial compounds with strong membrane-disrupting activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, venomous bite wound infections are common in developing nations. Investigating the envenomation organ and venom microbiota of five snake and two spider species, we observed venom community structures that depend on the host venomous animal species and evidenced recovery of viable microorganisms from black-necked spitting cobra (Naja...
Combining Human Organoids and Organ-on-a-Chip Technology to Model Intestinal Region-Specific Functionality
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The intestinal mucosa is a complex physical and biochemical barrier that fulfills a myriad of important functions. It enables the transport, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients and xenobiotics while facilitating a symbiotic relationship with microbiota and restricting the invasion of microorganisms. Functional interaction between various cell types and their physical and biochemical environment is vital to establish and maintain intestinal tissue homeostasis. Modeling these complex...
Microbiota in Tumors: From Understanding to Application
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Microbes with complex functions have been found to be a potential component in tumor microenvironments. Due to their low biomass and other obstacles, intratumor microbiota is poorly understood. Mucosal sites and normal adjacent tissues are important sources of intratumor microbiota, while hematogenous spread also leads to the invasion of microbes. Intratumor microbiota affects the progression of tumors through several mechanisms, such as DNA damage, activation of oncogenic pathways, induction of...
Interaction Between Altered Gut Microbiota and Sepsis: A Hypothesis or an Authentic Fact?
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Sepsis, as an important public health concern, is one of the leading causes of death in hospitals around the world, accounting for 25% of all deaths. Nowadays, several factors contribute to the development of sepsis. The role of the gut microbiota and the response state of the aberrant immune system is dominant. The effect of the human microbiome on health is undeniable, and gut microbiota is even considered a body organ. It is now clear that the alteration in the normal balance of the...
Unhelpful microbes inactivate diabetes drug
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Drugs can modify the microbiome and, reciprocally, the microbiome can impact drug efficacy. A recent study in Nature identifies a potential mechanism through which oral and gut bacteria selectively inhibit the antidiabetic drug acarbose.
Ursolic Acid Ameliorates Spinal Cord Injury in Mice by Regulating Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Changes
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) damages the autonomic nervous system and affects the homeostasis of gut microbiota. Ursolic acid (UA) is a candidate drug for treating nervous system injury due to its neuroprotective and antioxidant functions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of UA on SCI and its mechanism. Methods: UA was administered to SCI mice and the solvent corn oil was used as control. The weight of the mice was recorded daily. Mice feces were collected 21 days...
The Integration of Proteomics and Metabolomics Data Paving the Way for a Better Understanding of the Mechanisms Underlying Microbial Acquired Drug Resistance
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Due to an increase in the overuse of antimicrobials and accelerated incidence of drug resistant pathogens, antimicrobial resistance has become a global health threat. In particular, bacterial antimicrobial resistance, in both hospital and community acquired transmission, have been found to be the leading cause of death due to infectious diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial drug resistance is of clinical significance irrespective of hospital or community acquired since it plays an...
Many Questions Remain Unanswered About the Role of Microbial Transmission in Epizootic Shell Disease in American Lobsters (Homarus americanus)
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Despite decades of research on lobster species' biology, ecology, and microbiology, there are still unresolved questions about the microbial communities which associate in or on lobsters under healthy or diseased states, microbial acquisition, as well as microbial transmission between lobsters and between lobsters and their environment. There is an untapped opportunity for metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics to be added to the existing wealth of knowledge to more precisely track...
Potential Mechanisms of Transmission of Tick-Borne Viruses at the Virus-Tick Interface
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) are the second most important vector for transmission of pathogens to humans, livestock, and wildlife. Ticks as vectors for viruses have been reported many times over the last 100 years. Tick-borne viruses (TBVs) belong to two orders (Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales) containing nine families (Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Asfarviridae, Orthomyxovirida, Reoviridae, Flaviviridae, Phenuviridae, Nyamiviridae, and Nairoviridae). Among these TBVs, some are very pathogenic,...
Gancao Xiexin Decoction Ameliorates Ulcerative Colitis in Mice via Modulating Gut Microbiota and Metabolites
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that GCXX ameliorated DSS-induced colitis principally through modulating the gut microbiota and metabolites. This information should be integrated into the overall mechanisms of GCXX treatment of UC.
Integrated Gut-Heart Axis and Network Pharmacology to Reveal the Mechanisms of the Huoxue Wentong Formula Against Myocardial Ischemia
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that HX treated MI rats in a multitarget and multipathway manner. Its mechanism is related to the change of gut microbiota and the regulation of valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, and arachidonic acid metabolism.
Lactobacillus acidophilus and HKL Suspension Alleviates Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Regulating Gut Microbiota, Suppressing TLR9, and Promoting Metabolism
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with complex pathogenesis. The intestinal flora disturbance affects the homeostasis of the intestinal environment, leading to metabolic imbalance and immune abnormalities of the host, contributing to the perpetuation of intestinal inflammation. We suggest that the combination of anti-inflammatory therapy and the regulation of intestinal flora balance may help in the treatment process. Previously, we used a combination...
Pharmacomicrobiomics in Western Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine in Type 2 Diabetes
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Pharmacomicrobiomics refers to the interactions between foreign compounds and the gut microbiome resulting in heterogeneous efficacy, side effects, and toxicity of the compound concerned. Glucose lowering drugs reduce blood glucose by modulating insulin secretion and its actions as well as redistributing energy disposal. Apart from genetic, ecological, and lifestyle factors, maintaining an equilibrium of the whole gut microbiome has been shown to improve human health. Microbial fingerprinting...
Antibiotic Consumption Patterns in European Countries Might Be Associated with the Prevalence of Type 1 and 2 Diabetes
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Several publications have raised the issue that the development of diabetes precedes the alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) and the role of environmental factors. Antibiotic use induces dysbiosis, and we wanted to estimate the associations between the consumption of antibiotics and the prevalence of diabetes (both types 1 and 2; T1D and T2D, respectively) in European countries. If such an association exists, the dominant use antibiotic classes might be reflected in the prevalence rates of...
Glucocorticosteroids and the Risk of NAFLD in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Mon, 23 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Each year, the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) disease increases. NAFLD is a chronic disease. One of the most common causes of NAFLD is an inadequate lifestyle, which is characterized by a lack or low physical activity and eating highly processed foods rich in saturated fat and salt and containing low amount of fiber. Moreover, disturbances in intestinal microbiome and the use of certain drugs may predispose to NAFLD. NAFLD is an increasingly described disease in patients with...
Higher levels of Bifidobacteria and tumor necrosis factor in children with drug-resistant epilepsy are associated with anti-seizure response to the ketogenic diet
Sun, 22 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
BACKGROUND: Recently, studies have suggested a role for the gut microbiota in epilepsy. Gut microbial changes during ketogenic diet (KD) treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy have been described. Inflammation is associated with certain types of epilepsy and specific inflammation markers decrease during KD. The gut microbiota plays an important role in the regulation of the immune system and inflammation.
Microbiome-based screening and co-fermentation of rhizospheric microorganisms for highly ginsenoside Rg3 production
Sun, 22 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Ginsenoside Rg(3) has a wide range of pharmacological activities and application value while the content of Rg(3) in Panax plants is extremely low. The interaction between medicinal plants and microorganisms will be beneficial to produce active compounds by biotechnology. In this study, the rhizosphere soil samples from different P. notoginseng producing areas (Asanlong, Huilong, Demonstration garden) were collected to analyze the soil microflora characteristics by Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
Circulating extracellular vesicles carrying Firmicutes reflective of the local immune status may predict clinical response to pembrolizumab in urothelial carcinoma patients
Sun, 22 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Bacterial flora has clinical significance for the host. The metabolic environment created by this flora influences immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma. However, there are no reports on the clinical significance of bacterial flora in the host bloodstream. We aimed to clarify the correlation between extracellular vesicle (EV)-derived blood microflora information and tumor immunological status in urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients. Serum samples were collected from 20 healthy donors, 50 patients...
Complex and unexpected outcomes of antibiotic therapy against a polymicrobial infection
Sat, 21 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Antibiotics are our primary approach to treating complex infections, yet we have a poor understanding of how these drugs affect microbial communities. To better understand antimicrobial effects on host-associated microbial communities we treated cultured sputum microbiomes from people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF, n = 24) with 11 different antibiotics, supported by theoretical and mathematical modeling-based predictions in a mucus-plugged bronchiole microcosm. Treatment outcomes we identified in...
Antibiotic pretreatment attenuates liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by Farnesoid X receptor activation
Sat, 21 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Prophylactic antibiotics (Abx) are used before liver surgery, and the influence of antibiotic pretreatment on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains unclear. Hence, we explored the impact of Abx pretreatment on hepatic IRI in the present work. The gut microbiota has an essential role in hepatic bile acid (BA) metabolism, and we assumed that depletion of the gut microbiota could affect the composition of hepatic BAs and affect liver IRI. The IRI model demonstrated that Abx pretreatment...
Protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of probiotics on the gut microbiome of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease treated with rabeprazole
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
BACKGROUND: For patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms, the preferred treatment is proton pump inhibitor (PPI) administration for approximately 8 weeks. However, long-term use of PPIs can cause gut microbiome (GM) disturbances. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of probiotics combined with a PPI on the GM and gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Multi-omics analyses of the mechanism for the formation of soy sauce-like and soybean flavor in Bacillus subtilis BJ3-2
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Although soy sauce-like flavor and soybean flavor are two key contributors to the flavor of fermented foods, the key compounds of soy sauce-like flavor and soybean flavor and production mechanisms are still poorly understood and need further investigation. In the present study, we found that the Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) BJ3-2 strain has various metabolic properties at different temperatures, and the strain cultured at 37℃ increased the soybean flavor (a special flavor of...
Alterations of the gut microbial community structure and function with aging in the spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Gut dysbiosis, a pathological imbalance of bacteria, has been shown to contribute to the development of hypertension (HT), systemic- and neuro-inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rats (SHRSP). However, to date individual species that contribute to HT in the SHRSP model have not been identified. One potential reason, is that nearly all studies of the SHRSP gut microbiota have analyzed samples from rats with established HT. The goal of...
Canine models of human cancer: Bridging the gap to improve precision medicine
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Dogs are remarkable, adaptable, and dependable creatures that have evolved alongside humans while contributing tremendously to our survival. Our canine companions share many similarities to human disease, particularly cancer. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing technology, we are beginning to unravel the complexity of cancer and the vast intra- and intertumoral heterogeneity that makes treatment difficult. Consequently, precision medicine has emerged as a therapeutic approach to...
Effects of (R)-ketamine on reduced bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice: A role of gut microbiota
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Depression is a high risk for osteoporosis, suggesting an association between depression and low bone mineral density (BMD). We reported that the novel antidepressant (R)-ketamine could ameliorate the reduced BMD in the ovariectomized (OVX) mice which is an animal model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Given the role of gut microbiota in depression and bone homeostasis, we examined whether gut microbiota plays a role in the beneficial effects of (R)-ketamine in the reduced BMD of OVX mice. OVX or...
Phage delivered CRISPR-Cas system to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens in gut microbiome
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The Host-microbiome interactions that exist inside the gut microbiota operate in a synergistic and abnormal manner. Additionally, the normal homeostasis and functioning of gut microbiota are frequently disrupted by the intervention of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogens. CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR-associated protein with clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) recognized as a prokaryotic immune system has emerged as an effective genome-editing tool to edit and delete specific...
Interactions of resveratrol and its metabolites (resveratrol-3-sulfate, resveratrol-3-glucuronide, and dihydroresveratrol) with serum albumin, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and OATP transporters
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Resveratrol (RES) is a widely-known natural polyphenol which is also contained by several dietary supplements. Large doses of RES can result in high micromolar levels of its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in the circulation, due to the high presystemic metabolism of the parent polyphenol. Pharmacokinetic interactions of RES have been extensively studied, while only limited data are available regarding its metabolites. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the interactions of...
Dietary exosome-like nanoparticles: An updated review on their pharmacological and drug delivery applications
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Exosomes are lipid bilayer membrane-bound extracellular vesicular structures (30-150 nm) mainly released by eukaryotic cells of animal origin. Exosome-like nanoparticles (ELNs) are the vesicular structures originating from plant sources with features similar to eukaryotic animal cell derived exosomes. ELNs derived from dietary sources (dietary ELNs) have exceptional pharmacological potential in alleviating many diseases and are good in maintaining intestinal health through the manipulation of...
Functional bowel symptoms in the general population (Review)
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Several patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) do not seek medical attention for their symptoms. When patients with IBS seek help, the majority of them are handled at primary healthcare centers, whereas research studies are performed at tertiary healthcare centers. The present study aimed to summarize findings from >4,000 participants of the general population included in the Malmö Offspring Study (inclusion rate 46.7%). The participants were clinically examined, their blood and fecal...
Identification of Potential Urinary Metabolite Biomarkers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist between urine metabolites in VAP-PA compared to VAP due to other bacterial aetiologies as well to non-VAP (pre-infection) timepoints. The unique urinary metabolic biomarkers we describe here, if further validated, could serve as highly specific diagnostic biomarkers of VAP-PA.
Gut Microbiome Was Highly Related to the Regulation of Metabolism in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: In LUAD patients, the gut microbiome profile has significantly changed. We used three biomarkers taxa to develop a diagnostic model, which was accurate and suitable for the diagnosis of LUAD. Gut microbes, especially those three biomarkers' taxa, may participate in regulating metabolism-related pathways in LUAD patients, such as the pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione metabolism.
Beneficial Effects of a Low-Glycemic Diet on Serum Metabolites and Gut Microbiota in Obese Women With Prevotella and Bacteriodes Enterotypes: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Generalized healthy eating patterns may not benefit everyone due to different genetics and enterotypes. We aimed to compare the effects of a low-glycemic diet representing the Korean traditional balanced diet (Low-GID) and westernized diet as a control diet (CD) on anthropometry, serum metabolites, and fecal bacteria in a randomized clinical trial according to enterotypes. We recruited 52 obese women aged 30-50 years, and they consumed Low-GID and CD meals for 1 month, with a 1-month washout...
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: novel therapies at a glance
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive disease of oxalate metabolism, resulting from a mutation in the AGXT gene that encodes the hepatic peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). Until recently, treatment of PH1 was supportive, consisting of intensive hyperhydration, use of crystallization inhibitors (citrate and neutral phosphorus), in a subset of responsive PH1 patients' pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), and kidney and...
Ficus hirta Vahl. Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Regulating Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has gradually become one of the most serious liver diseases threatening human health in the world. Currently, Chinese herbal medicine is a potentially important treatment option for NAFLD, and the development of effective Chinese herbal medicine has a good prospect. Previous studies have suggested that Ficus hirta Vahl. (FV) has various protective effects on the liver. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic outcomes of FV treatment for the liver...
Altered Metabolism of the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis Is Linked With Comorbid Anxiety in Fecal Recipient Mice of Myasthenia Gravis
Fri, 20 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Myasthenia gravis (MG) comorbid anxiety seriously affects the progress of MG. However, the exact relationship remains poorly understood. Recently, our preliminary study has revealed that intestinal microbe disturbance is closely related to MG. Therefore, further exploration of whether the microbiome is involved in MG comorbid anxiety is warranted. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis was used to characterize the metabotype of feces, serum, and three brain...
Genome mining reveals polysaccharide-degrading potential and new antimicrobial gene clusters of novel intestinal bacterium Paenibacillus jilinensis sp. nov
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the varieties of CAZymes genes and BGCs in the genome of Paenibacillus jilinensis. These findings confirm the beneficial function of the gut microbiota and also provide a promising candidate for the development of new carbohydrate degrading enzymes and antibacterial agents.
Microbial regulation of enteroendocrine cells
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
There has been an enormous interest to investigate impact of gut microbiota on host physiology over the past decade. To further understand its role at organismal level, it is important to delineate host-microbiota interaction at tissue and cell level. Diet, antibiotics, disease, or surgery produce shifts in composition of the gut microbiota that further alter levels of microbial-derived metabolites. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are specialized hormone-producing cells in the gut epithelium that...
Tuning in to inflammation: A path forward for precise and efficacious microbiome medicines?
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Gut microbes sense various external cues, including those found in inflammatory conditions, yielding possibilities for connecting sensory circuits to effector pathways to engineer precise and scaled interventions to target pathway activity. Scott et al. combined directed evolution and a synthetic gene circuit in yeast to fine-tune sensing of extracellular ATP, showing promise as a live therapeutic in two murine models of chemical colitis and a murine model of antibody-mediated enteritis.¹.
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics reveals metabolic perturbations in medullary thyroid carcinoma
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare tumor that arises from parafollicular cells within the thyroid gland. The molecular mechanism underlying MTC has not yet been fully understood. Here, we aimed to perform plasma metabolomics profiling of MTC patients to explore the perturbation of metabolic pathways contributing to MTC tumorigenesis. Plasma samples from 20 MTC patients and 20 healthy subjects were obtained to carry out an untargeted metabolomics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry....
A transmissible γδ intraepithelial lymphocyte hyperproliferative phenotype is associated with the intestinal microbiota and confers protection against acute infection
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Intraepithelial lymphocytes expressing the γδ T cell receptor (γδ IELs) serve as a first line of defense against luminal microbes. Although the presence of an intact microbiota is dispensable for γδ IEL development, several microbial factors contribute to the maintenance of this sentinel population. However, whether specific commensals influence population of the γδ IEL compartment under homeostatic conditions has yet to be determined. We identified a novel γδ IEL hyperproliferative phenotype...
Therapeutic advances in alcohol-associated hepatitis
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
In recent years, there have been important advances in our understanding of alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH), which have occurred in parallel with a surge in clinical trial activity. Meanwhile, the broader medical field has seen a transformation in care paradigms based on emerging digital technologies. This review focuses on breakthroughs in our understanding of AH and how these breakthroughs are leading to new paradigms for biomarker discovery, clinical trial activity, and care models for...
Polystyrene microplastic exposure induces insulin resistance in mice via dysbacteriosis and pro-inflammation
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Microplastics (MPs) as emerging contaminants have become a global environmental problem. However, studies on the effects of MPs on metabolic diseases remain limited. Here, we evaluated the effects of polystyrene (PS), one of the most prominent types of MPs, on insulin sensitivity in mice fed with normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD), and explained the underlying mechanisms. Mice fed with NCD or HFD both showed insulin resistance (IR) after PS exposure accompanied by increased plasma...
Sea Urchin Polyketide Synthase SpPks1 Produces the Naphthalene Precursor to Echinoderm Pigments
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Nearly every animal species on Earth contains a unique polyketide synthase (PKS) encoded in its genome, yet no animal-clade PKS has been biochemically characterized, and even the chemical products of these ubiquitous enzymes are known in only a few cases. The earliest animal genome-encoded PKS gene to be identified was SpPks1 from sea urchins. Previous genetic knockdown experiments implicated SpPks1 in synthesis of the sea urchin pigment echinochrome. Here, we express and purify SpPks1,...
Genomic and metabolomic profiling of endolithic Rhodococcus fascians strain S11 isolated from an arid serpentine environment
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Genomic and metabolomic studies of endolithic bacteria are essential for understanding their adaptations to extreme conditions of the rock environment and their contributions to mineralization and weathering processes. The endoliths of arid serpentine rocks are exposed to different environmental stresses, including desiccation and re-hydration, temperature fluctuations, oligotrophy, and high concentrations of heavy metals. Bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus commonly inhabit endolithic...
Altered serum bile acid profile in fibromyalgia is associated with specific gut microbiome changes and symptom severity
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiome in women with fibromyalgia have recently been demonstrated, including changes in the relative abundance of certain bile acid metabolizing bacteria. Bile acids can affect multiple physiological processes, including visceral pain, but have yet to be explored for association to the fibromyalgia gut microbiome. In this study, 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted metabolomic approaches were used to characterize the gut microbiome and...
Oryzanol Attenuates High Fat and Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia by Regulating the Gut Microbiome and Amino Acid Metabolism
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Hyperlipidemia is intricately associated with the dysregulation of gut microbiota and host metabolomes. This study explored the antihyperlipidemic function of oryzanol and investigated whether the function of oryzanol affected the gut microbiome and its related metabolites. Hamsters were fed a standard diet (Control) and a high fat and cholesterol (HFCD) diet with or without oryzanol, separately. Our results showed that oryzanol significantly decreased HFCD-induced fat accumulation, serum total...
Zengye Decoction Attenuated Severe Acute Pancreatitis Complicated with Acute Kidney Injury by Modulating the Gut Microbiome and Serum Amino Acid Metabolome
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
CONCLUSIONS: ZYD attenuated SAP-AKI by modulating the gut microbiome and serum amino acid metabolome, which may be a promising adjuvant treatment.
Hepatoprotective Effect of Oplopanax elatus Nakai Adventitious Roots Extract by Regulating CYP450 and PPAR Signaling Pathway
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
O. elatus Nakai is a traditional medicine that has been confirmed to exert effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions, and is used for the treatment of different disorders. However, its potential beneficial effects on drug induced hepatotoxicity and relevant molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the protective effect and further elucidated the mechanisms of action of O. elatus on liver protection. O. elatus chlorogenic acids-enriched fraction (OEB), which...
β-1,6-Glucan From Pleurotus eryngii Modulates the Immunity and Gut Microbiota
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii exhibit a variety of biological activities. Here, we obtained a homogeneous branched β-1,6-glucan (APEP-A-b) from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii and investigated its effect on immunity and gut microbiota. Our results showed that APEP-A-b significantly increases splenic lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell activity and phagocytic capacity of peritoneal cavity phagocytes. Furthermore, we found that the proportion of CD4^(+) and CD8^(+) T cells in lamina...
Gut Microbiome and Plasma Metabolomic Analysis in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Thu, 19 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders. Studies have shown the involvement of an abnormal immune system in MDS pathogenesis. The gut microbiota are known to influence host immunity and metabolism, thereby contributing to the development of hematopoietic diseases. In this study, we performed gut microbiome and plasma metabolomic analyses in patients with MDS and healthy controls. We found that patients with MDS had a different gut...
In vitro anti-tuberculosis effect of probiotic Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus PMC203 isolated from vaginal microbiota
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), poses a severe challenge for public health and remains the number one cause of death as a single infectious agent. There are 10 million active cases of TB per year with 1.5 million deaths, and 2-3 billion people are estimated to harbor latent M. tb infection. Moreover, the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR), extremely-drug-resistant (XDR), and the recent totally drug-resistant (TDR) M. tb is becoming a global...
The combination of berberine and evodiamine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with modulation of gut microbiota in rats
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a manifestation of hepatic metabolic syndrome. Some studies on the pathogenesis of NAFLD by targeting gut microbiota have attracted wide attention. Previous studies have demonstrated the positive effects of berberine and evodiamine on metabolic diseases and gut microbiota dysbiosis. However, it is not known whether the combination of berberine and evodiamine (BE) can prevent the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD....
SER-109 for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
No abstract
SER-109 for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
No abstract
Genetic survey of Psilocybe natural products
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Psilocybe magic mushrooms are best known for their main natural product, psilocybin, and its dephosphorylated congener, the psychedelic metabolite psilocin. Beyond tryptamines, the secondary metabolome of these fungi is poorly understood. The genomes of five species ( P. azurescens , P. cubensis , P. cyanescens , P. mexicana , and P. serbica ) were browsed to understand more profoundly common and species-specific metabolic capacities. The genomic analyses revealed a much greater and yet...
Lamina propria interleukin 17 A aggravates natural killer T-cell activation in autoimmune hepatitis
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Autoimmune hepatitis is an interface hepatitis characterized by the progressive destruction of the liver parenchyma, the cause of which is still obscure. Interleukin (IL)-17A is a major driver of autoimmunity, which can be produced by innate immune cells against several intracellular pathogens. Here, we investigated the involvement of IL-17A in a mice model of immune-mediated hepatitis with the intestine exposed to Salmonella typhimurium. Our results showed more severe Concanavalin (Con)...
Molecular Mechanism of Polysaccharides Extracted from Chinese Medicine Targeting Gut Microbiota for Promoting Health
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The accumulating evidence revealed that gut microbiota plays an important role in pathological process of disease including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Polysaccharides extracted from Chinese medicine (CM) can not only alleviate pathological status but also promote health by anti-inflammatory, regulating immunity, lowering blood glucose and lipids, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidation. The alterations of gut microbiota composition and...
Evaluation of Novel Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Targeting Auto-Inducer 2 (AI-2) for the Control of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Infections in Chickens
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) associated with colibacillosis results in high morbidity and mortality, and severe economic losses to the poultry industry. APEC is a zoonotic pathogen and can infect humans through contaminated poultry products. Vaccination and antibiotic treatment are currently used to control APEC infections; however, the limited effect of vaccines and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains have necessitated the development of novel therapeutics. Here, we...
Emerging actionable targets to treat therapy-resistant colorectal cancers
Wed, 18 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
In the last two decades major improvements have been reached in the early diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and, besides chemotherapy, an ampler choice of therapeutic approaches is now available, including targeted and immunotherapy. Despite that, CRC remains a "big killer" mainly due to the development of resistance to therapies, especially when the disease is diagnosed after it is already metastatic. At the same time, our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying resistance has been rapidly...
Guanxin Xiaoban capsules could treat atherosclerosis by affecting the gut microbiome and inhibiting the AGE-RAGE signalling pathway
Tue, 17 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Introduction. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disorder in which plaque builds up in the arteries and is associated with several cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, cerebral infarction and cerebral haemorrhage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover new medications to treat or prevent atherosclerosis.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The active components of Guanxin Xiaoban capsules may have an effect on the gut microbiome of patients with atherosclerosis and...
Arginine-mediated gut microbiome remodeling promotes host pulmonary immune defense against nontuberculous mycobacterial infection
Tue, 17 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases (NTM-PDs) are emerging as global health threats with issues of antibiotic resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the gut-lung axis may provide novel candidates for host-directed therapeutics against various infectious diseases. However, little is known about the gut-lung axis in the context of host protective immunity to identify new therapeutics for NTM-PDs. This study was performed to identify gut microbes and metabolites capable of...
CTH exacerbates Helicobacter pylori immunopathogenesis by promoting macrophage metabolic remodeling and activation
Tue, 17 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Macrophages play a crucial role in the inflammatory response to the human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori, which infects half of the world's population and causes gastric cancer. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of macrophage immunometabolism in their activation state and function. We have demonstrated that the cysteine-producing enzyme, cystathionine g-lyase (CTH), is upregulated in humans and mice with H. pylori infection. Here we show that induction of CTH in macrophages by...
Pharmacomicrobiomics: Influence of gut microbiota on drug and xenobiotic metabolism
Tue, 17 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Gut microbiota is the most diverse and complex biological ecosystem, which is estimated to consist of greater than 5 million distinct genes and 100 trillion cells which are in constant communication with the host environment. The interaction between the gut microbiota and drugs and other xenobiotic compounds is bidirectional, quite complicated, and not fully understood yet. The impact of xenobiotics from pollution, manufacturing processes or from the environment is harmful to human health at...
Time for a change! A spotlight on the many neglected facets of sponge microbial biotechnology
Tue, 17 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The sponge-microorganism partnership is one the most successful symbiotic associations exploited under a biotechnological perspective. During the last thirty years, sponge-associated bacteria have been increasingly harnessed for bioactive molecules, notably antimicrobials and cytotoxic compounds. Unfortunately, there are gaps in sponge microbial biotechnology, with a multitude of applications being little investigated or even unregarded. In this context, the current Perspective aims to shed...
Systemic Evaluation of the Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Breast Cancer in a Mouse Model
Tue, 17 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Breast cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease. To evaluate the effect of preexisting DM on breast cancer progression without drug interference, we used a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus BALB/c mouse model. We found that 4T1 breast cancer complicated with DM decreased the mouse survival time compared with 4T1-bearing mice. The diversity of gut microbiome was affected by DM. The infiltration of mucosal-associated invariant T cell (MAIT), CD8+ T...
The Gut Microbiome in Colorectal Cancer
Mon, 16 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The gut microbiome is important in human health and disease. Recent studies have begun to elucidate its specific role in colorectal cancer. The gut microbiome seems to play an integral role in colorectal cancer initiation and progression, and oncologic drug metabolism and toxicity. This review examines the associations between the gut microbiome and colorectal cancer initiation, progression, and oncologic drug metabolism, highlighting proposed mechanisms and landmark publications in this field....
Time 2EVOLVE: predicting efficacy of engineered T-cells - how far is the bench from the bedside?
Mon, 16 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Immunotherapy with gene engineered CAR and TCR transgenic T-cells is a transformative treatment in cancer medicine. There is a rich pipeline with target antigens and sophisticated technologies that will enable establishing this novel treatment not only in rare hematological malignancies, but also in common solid tumors. The T2EVOLVE consortium is a public private partnership directed at accelerating the preclinical development of and increasing access to engineered T-cell immunotherapies for...
Antibiotic resistant bacteria: current situation and treatment options to accelerate the development of a new antimicrobial arsenal
Mon, 16 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health threats worldwide. Currently, antibiotic-resistant bacteria kill 700,000 people every year. These data represent the near future in which we find ourselves, a "post-antibiotic era" where the identification and development of new treatments are key. This review is focused on the current and emerging antimicrobial therapies which can solve this global threat.
Washed preparation of faecal microbiota changes the transplantation related safety, quantitative method and delivery
Mon, 16 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
The safety, quantitative method and delivery of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) vary a lot from different countries in practice. Recently, the improved methodology of FMT based on the automatic filtration, washing process and the related delivery was named as washed microbiota transplantation (WMT). First, this study aimed to describe the methodology development of FMT from manual to washing preparation from 2012 to 2021 in China Microbiota Transplantation System (CMTS), a centralized...
Evaluation of the antifungal effect of chlorogenic acid against strains of Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole: apoptosis induction and in silico analysis of the possible mechanisms of action
Mon, 16 May 2022 06:00:00 -0400
Introduction. Candida spp. are commensal fungal pathogens of humans, but when there is an imbalance in the microbiota, or weak host immunity, these yeasts can become pathogenic, generating high medical costs.Gap Statement. With the increase in resistance to conventional antifungals, the development of new therapeutic strategies is necessary. This study evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of chlorogenic acid against fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida spp. Mechanism of action through...

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